human geography f763 population and resources - issue

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population and resources

how / why rate of growth of population varies ? -

  • economic
  • social
  • political
  • demographic 
  • medical 

what are resources ? - by source / use / renewability 

factors affecting supply of resources - physical / human 

why does demand change ? - time + location 

how can human activity manage resources ?

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population growth rates

International 

  • pop. change = (births - deaths) +/- migration 

National 

  • pop. change = births - deaths 

Fertility 

  • total fertility rate = avg number women gives birth to in reproductive life 
  • crude birth rates = ratio of births to total population ( /1000/yr)

Mortality 

  • Life expectancy = avg number of years expected to live from day of birth 
  • Infant mortality rate = avg number of deaths of children before 1st/5th birthday (/1000/yr) 
  • Crude death rates = ratio of deaths to total population (/1000/yr)
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global population growth rate MEDC

2010 - 0.06% avg annual growth rate of MEDC's 

Reason 

  • emancipation of women - no need to have children 
  • ageing population - less need for elderly support 
  • 'opportunity cost of children' - economic restructuring - agriculture to services 
  • outmigration 

Issue 

  • workforce shortage + less youths to vote
  • strain on health services + pensions 

Management  - resources + population 

  • renewable energy 
  • 'Open door' to migration 
  • pro natalist - offering incentives for women with more children 
  • raise retirement age 
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global population growth rate LEDC

1.4% avg annual growth rate for LEDC 2010

Reasons 

  • High fertility = lack of contraception / need for children / high infant mortality 
  • Low mortality = Healthcare / agriculture

Issues

  • overpopulation 
  • too many for available resources = decline in living standard + access to basics 

Management-  resources + population

  • Aid (well / dam or irrigation / GM) + education 
  • anti-natalist (contraception / education / policies) 
  • 'closed door' immigration system 
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factors influencing population change (eco / soc)

Economic Fertility and Mortality 

  • inc wealth = dec levels of fertility 
  • LEDC's = economic value of children in agriculture / look after elderly 
  • MEDC's = £250,000 cost / emancipation / 
  • LEDC's = poverty / inadequate helathcare 
  • MEDC's  = 15 yrs higher due to healthcare advancements 

Social Fertility 

  • LEDC's = strong religious beliefs (irrational thinking) / Philippines 80% roman catholic 
  • MEDC's = emancipation of women - working = less fertile years 
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factors influencing population change (pol / demo)

Political - Fertility and Migration 

  • LEDC's = anti natalist China - 1 child policy 
  • MEDC's = pro natalist - restructure age pyramid / control resource strain / economic growth 
  • LEDC's = encourage emigration - work overseas and send back $ 
  • MEDC's = encourage immigration - push fertility and population growth 

Demographic - Structure and Migration 

  • LEDC's = very high youth population + low elderly     (44%<15     2%>65)
  • MEDC's = relatively low youth + higher elderly           (17%<15     13%>65)    
  • emigration - decrease in BR and increase in DR / slows pop growth 
  • immigration - increases pop growth / more fertile young women 
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Resource Pessimist

Thomas Malthus, Neo-Malthusians - 1978 

  • negative view on population growth - due to prolonged life of poor 
  • J- curve of population growth (geometric population + arithmetic resources)
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Problems with theory 

  • didnt predict increased food production - technological improvements in farming practices 
  • didnt predict decreased fertility in MEDC's - indsutrial period / education / emancipation 
  • rich 20% of world however 80% of resources
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Technological Optimist

Ester Boserup - 1968 

  • postive view on population growth 
  • S curve of population growth 
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View on technology 

  • LEDC 'green revolution' - hybrid seeds with rice + wheat with higher yields 
  • increased food supply 
  • Mexico increased carrying capacity 
  • HOWEVER pollution increases 
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UK DTM

1700-1750 (birth rate high, but death rate higher)

  • Agrarian economy 
  • large families for farm labour 
  • child labour allowed 

1750-1800 (birth rate remains high, death rate declines)

  • industrial revolution begins 
  • improved diet (Agriculture revolution)
  • medical improvements 
  • imporved water - pipes + pumps 

1800- 1860 (birth rate drops then increases, deathe rate flattens)

  • births to help INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • factories mass produce, industrialisation, need for child workers 
  • outbreaks of cholera increased death rates 
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UK DTM

1860 - 1940 (birth rate rapidly decline, death rates begin to decline again)

  • child labour abolished 
  • machines reduce need for children 
  • children compulsory education to age of 12 

1940 - 1950 (birth rates spike and death rates stay low)

  • post WW2 social attitudes change 

Limitations 

  • generalisation 
  • no reference to resource impact or gov. natalist policies 
  • no reference to migration (19th century 'great migration' from EU to USA)
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