Physical Education GCSE

These cards are intended for use for a general overview of information i have used to revise for my exams in PE. Our exam board was changed from one to another, AQA and EdExcel i think, so the information should be helpful to all examination boards.

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Cardiovascular system - Overview

Made up of;

  • Heart
  • Blood vessels
  • Blood

Consists of two systems;

  • Pulmonary
  • Systemic
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Pulmonary Circuit

  •  
    • Blood TO lungs - to be oxygenated - back to heart
  • IN LUNGS;
    • CO2 removed 
    • O2 and Haemoglibin added

*Left side of heart*

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Systemic Circuit

  • Blood TO heart - to be de-oxygenated - back to heart

also carries nutrients and waste

*Right Side of heart*

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The Heart

HR x stroke vol. = cardiac output

4 chambers

  • 2 Atria - collect 
  • 2 Ventricles - pump 

Valves - prevent blood re-entering.

Septum - seperate two sides of heart.


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Blood Vessels

3 types

  • Arteries
  • Veins
  • Capillaries

Lumen - passages for blood to travel through

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What is in blood?

4 key parts

Plasma;

  • fluid part of blood
  • carries CO2, Hormones and Waste

Red Blood Cells

  • Contain Haemoglobin
  • Made in bone marrow - more training, more RBC's

White Blood Cells

  • Produce antibodies and destroy harms
  • Made in bone marrow - more training, more WBC's

Platelets

  • Clump and form clots
  • Protect - Preventing bleeding
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Blood Vessels - Arteries

Arteries

  • Carry O2 blood away
  • Thick musc. walls
  • Small inter lumen
  • Blood under high pressure
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Blood Vessels - Veins

Veins

  • Carry DE-O2 blood to heart
  • Thin walls
  • Larger inter lumen
  • Blood under low pressure
  • Valves to prevent backwards blood flow
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Blood Vessels - Capillaries

Capillaries

  • Found in muscles and lungs
  • Microscopic - 1 cell thick
  • Very low blood pressure
  • Gas exchange :- 
    • O2 from capillaries into tissues
    • CO2 from tissues into blood
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