Physical Education

Great fantastic notes on GCSE FULL course for Physical Education :)Enjoy

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  • Created by: lucy
  • Created on: 19-05-11 17:56

Functions of skeleton-

Support- The skeleton supports the soft tissues of the body as it forms a rigid framework to which our muscles,tendoms are attached to

Shape- The overal shape of our bodies is mostly due to our skeletons- Short or Tall

Protection- Our bones are very strong and can provide protection to the vital organs- Skull protects brain

Movement- Our bones are levers which are pulled by the muscles to cause movement

Making blood cells- Inside long bones is a substance called mone marrow- makes new blood cells 

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Types of bones

Long bones- Have a body longer than it is wide
                       Have a hard casing, spongy in centre
                       Bones such as Femur, Humerus

Short bones- Are roughly as wide as they are long
                        Contain large amounts of bone marrow to make blood vessels
                        Bones such as Carpals and Tarsals

 Flat bones- Strong, flat pieces of bone
                     Main funtions are protection and muscle attachment
                     Bones such as cranium, Scapula

Irregular Bones- Dont fit in other categories-unusual shape

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Bone Formation

Ossification- Process by which cartilage is turned into born

When born all our bones are cartilage
Process of Ossification turns the cartilage to bone-longer for some bones
Bones made up of serveral layers- Outter layer is Periosteum
There is then an outer layer of strong compact (hard bone)
Some spongy bone contains red bone marrow- makes red blood cells
The Marrow cavity contains yellow marrow- makes whiteblood cells.

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Fixed or immovable joints - also known as fibrous joints. Like the joints between the different bones of the skull

Slightly movable joints - also known as cartilaginous joints. There is a small amount of movement permitted at these joints which are separated by cartilage, such as in the joints between the vertebrae.

Freely movable - also known as synovial joints. These contain synovial fluid inside a synovial membrane which surrounds the joint. An example is the knee joint.

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Different types of movement available at different joints- shoulder moves in far more ways than the knee. Main types of movement are-

Flexion- Reducing the angle at the joint- bending knee or elbow

Extension- Increasing the angle at the join- Straiting knee or elbow

Adduction- Moving the body part towards the centre of body- Bring leg towards other

Abduction- Moving the body part awayfrom the centre of body- One leg away from the other

Rotaion- Turning or twisting a body part- turning leg to point toe

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Freely movable (synovial) Joints

Hinge- Flextion/Extension - Elbow or knee

Pivot- Rotation of one bone around another- Top of the neck

Ball and socket- Flexion/Extension/Adduction/Abduction/internal and external rotation- Shoulder/hip

Condyloid- Flexion/Extension/Adduction/Abduction/Circumduction-Wrist joint

Gliding- Gliding movements- Intercarpal joints

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Connective Tissues and joints

Three types of connective tissue in and around joints-

Cartliage- Sits on the ends of to bones within a joint to stop the two ends from rubbing

Ligaments- These connect bones to bones and help keep joint together

Tendons- These connect the mucsle to bones and usually cross a joint so that the associtaed muscle can cause movement at the joint

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The Spine

Consists of lots of small irregular bones- Vertebrae. Their fuction is to allow movement at the spine- provide an attachment for muscles and also to protect spinal cord whcih runs through their centres.

Cervical- The neck part of the spines and consists of 7 vertebrae

Thoracic- Is the upper back and consists of 12 vertebrae

Lumbar- its the vertebrae forms the lower back- includes 5 vertebrae

Sacrum- Is the buttocks part of the spine and consists of 5 vertebrae- fused together appear as triangular bone

Coccyx- Very end of the spine and used to be our tail bones- does not have function

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Types of muscles

Skeletal Muscle (Voluntary muscle)- Attached to our skeletons and cause us to move our body parts. Always under control.

Smooth Muscle (Involuntary muscle)- Not under our direct control and contracts of it own accord. situated in many walls of organs- such as stomach and blood vessels.Called smooth as it does not share the same stripy appearance as others.

Cardiac Muscle- Found in the heart, no where else. Works continuously and is not under our control.

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Muscle fibres

Muscles are made up of bundles of fibres. Either Fast or Slow Twitch

Fast twitch fibres- Used for powerful, fast movements. Get tired quickly. Athletes who are good at short events which require speed and power have high number of these twitch fibres.

Slow twitch fibres- Are good for indurance activities. Contract slowly with less force, dont tire as easily. Long distance runners tend to have more of these.

Everyone have a similar number of muscle fibres. People with larger muscles have larger fibres, not more.

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Muscle pairs

In order for a muscle to cause a movement, it corsses a joint. it is attached to two bones which form the joint by tendons. Just one of the the bones will move when the muscle contracts.

Muscles have two ends, one is called the Orgigin, and is the end that attaches to the stationary bone. Other is called in insertion and is attached to the moving bone.

Muscles only pull and cant push they work in pairs called antagonistic pairs. When one muscle contracts the other relaxes. The muscle which is contracting is called agonist or the prime mover. Relaxing muscle is called antagonist. There is a third muscle type called- Synergist. These muscles stabilise bone which is not moving,

Examples are-
Agonist- Biceps Brachii
Antagonist- Triceps Brachii
Synergist- Deltoid

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Muscle Contractions

Isometric- muscle length does not change and there is no movement-carry bucket of water.

Isotonic- Muscle length changes, causing movement at a joint- bicep curl.

The growth in muscle size is called Hypertrophy.

If we don not use our muscles regulary, muscles reduce in size. This is called Atrophy.

Muscles always under slight tension- can sit up right. This small amount is known as muscle tone. Exercise improves it.

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The Respiratory system

Consistes of all structures which are used in the process of breathing and supplying our bodies with oxygen.

Mouth or nose- Air is warmed and filteredand passed through larynx and pharynx

Trachea- or windpipe carries air towards the lungs

Bronchi- the trachea splits into two bronchi, one leads to the left other to right

Bronchioles- once within the lungs the bronchi continue to divide into these smaller tubes

Alveoli- the bronchiloles end in small sacs called alveoli-gas exchange takes place

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Gas Exchange

Gas exchange is assing the of oxygen from the alveoli into the blood flow and the excess Carbon Dioxide within the blood flow passing back into the alveoli to be breathed out, Each tiny alveoli is covered by capillaries.

We breathe in air- 21% Oxygen.
Here oxygen enters red blood cells
Can travel around body the organs and muscles
Carbon Dioxide is a wast product collect from the muscles, blood stream and organs.
Cycle continues as more oxygen is recived into blood flow.

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The Circulatory system

Consists of the Heart, blood vessels and blood itself. Transport, temperature control and Protection.

Transport- of substances such as Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

Control of body temperature- blood moves towards the skin to cool us down,

Protection- in the form of our immune syetem. Blood carries white blood cells which help fight disease. Platelets also clot the blood to stop us from bleeding.

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Blood Vessels

Arteries- Carry blood away from heart
                Carry oxygenated blood
                Thick, Strong, Elastic walls
                Smaller arteries are called arterioles

Veins- Carry blood back to the heart
            Carry deoxygenated blood 
           Contain valves to make sure the blood travels in the right direction when 
            under low pressure
            Thinner walls and Smaller Veins are called venules

Capillaries- smallest blood vessels which connect veins and arteries
                     Travel deep inside muscles and organs to supply nutrients/oxygen
                     Have walls only one cell thick to allow exchange of these

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Red blood cells- These are disc shaped cells which carry haemoglobin to
                              combine with oxygen.

White blood cells- These fight against disease by using antibodies and antitoxins

Platelets- These are fragments of cells whcih help blood to clot at wounds.

Plasma- Straw coloured liquid which carries all the blood cells as well as hormones, waste products and digested foods.


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Health is a state well-being. A state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease of infirmity.

Physical well-being- You are injury and disease free.

Mental well-being- Dont suffer from mental illness or high levels of stress anxiety

Soical well-being- Believe you have some purpose.

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P-ersonal hygiene- Keeping clean, help avoid illness
L-ifestyles- way you live your life- activities, jobs, rest. Lazyness affects health
E-motional health- Wotk, relationships and friends can cause you feel good/bad
A-locohol/Drugs- Excessive alocohol and use of illegal drugs have negative affect on physical, emotional and social well-being.
S-afety- Not being safe and careful, have correct equipment.
E-nvironment- Noisy envrioments can cause stress and lack of sleep.
having a well-balanced diet helps to keep you healthy.

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Physical benetifs

Improved body shapes- including muscle tone and posture

Strengthens bones and muscles

Reduces the chance of illness so increasing life expectancy

Improves endurance, flexibility and overall fitness

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Mental benefits

Helps you to deal with stress and tension

Improves selp-confidence

Increases motivation

Something to aim for like a challenge

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Social benefits

Helps tou meet new people

Improves your teamwork and coopertaion

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Diet and Nutrition

Balanced diet-

Four main food types-

Meat and fish

Dairy products

Fruit and vegetables

Bread, Cereaks, potatoes, nuts, pulses etc

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Proteins are used to help us  Grow and repair tissues.

Protains found in meat, fish, milk and eggs.

Also found in beans and lentils

Made from amino acids

15% of your diet

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Sorce of energy, also provide warmth for our bodies and protextion for our vital organs.

three types of fats-

Saturated, Monosaturated, Polysaturated

30% of your daily diet

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Muscular endurance

Muscles can continue to exert a lot of force for a long period

The feeling of heavyness and weakness means your muscles are fatiguing

Athletes with higher muscular endurance have a higher proportions of Slow Twitch mucsle fibres

Muscular endurance can be increase through weight training

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Cardiovascular Endurance

Your heart and lungs can keep your muscles supplied with oxygen throughout exercise

The harder your muscles work the more oxygen they need, heart rate rises.

The better your CV system is, the slower your heart rate is because you pump more blood with each beat.

You can improve your CV endurance through aerobice training

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Aerobic- Means with oxygen
                Heart and lung supply enough to maintain level of exercise
                Glucose+Oxygen=Carbon dioxide +Water + Energy
               Carbon dioxide and water are breathed out-water also lost through sweat
               Long as you get enough Oxygen to the muscles-go on for long time

Anaerobic- Means without oxygen
                    Heart and lungs dont supply enough oxygen
                    Glucose= Lactic acid +Energy
                    Lactic acid builds up in muscles as there isnt enough oxygen
                    Lactic acid makes your muscles feel very tired and heavy
                    Soon enough you have to slow down or stop

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Static strength- Try and move an immoveable object, or carry a heavy object.
                            No movement of the object.
                            Muscles do not change lenght (isometric contraction)

Explosive strength- Used when exerting a force in a short, fast bursts
                                   Similar to power
                                   Throwing a ball or long jump

Dynamic strength- Repeatedly applying force, over long period
                                 Similar to muscular endurance
                                 Performing reps when weight training

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Combination of reaction time and movement-

Reaction time- is the time it takes you to responf to a stimulus

Movement time- is the time it takes to perform a movement

Speed can be improved through training which concentrates on strength and techniques- some factors may limit your speed-

Inherited characteristics- such as the number of fast twitch fibres you may have.
Body shape and size- Bone structure, weight and muscle size will affect how quickly you can move
Event duration- Over longer distances, it is not possible to run at full speed throughout

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Power= SpeedxStrength

Power is basically strong movements, performed with speed. Lots of sports require power

To be powerful you need to be strong but you also need to have good balance and coordination, to direct and control this power.

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Flexibility is how far your joints move which depends on the elasticity of you your muscles.

Being flexible is great for most sports not just dance and ballet- it helps-

Make your movements more efficient, meaning you have more energy available for other aspects of your performance.
Avoid injuries as fleible muscles are not as easy to stretch.
Flexible people generally have better posture- helps avid aches and pains.
Stretching helps to prepare you for exercise as it is a good way of warming up.

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Improving Flexibility

Active stretches- Move the joint to the point where you feel gentle stretch
                               Hold position, dont bounce
                               If strecthing muscle fades make harder- move further
                               Stretched should not hurt

Passive stretching- Involves a partner moving your body part for you
                                   important you communicate

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Effect of age in sport

Strength- Children not as strong as adults
                  in 20s and 30s is is easy to build up strength and muscle mass
                  in your 40s strength decreases as protein levels fall

Flexibility- Most flexible as adolescents
                   As we get older we tend to loose suppleness

Oxygen capacity- The capacity to transport and use oxygen so effectively falls

Injury + Disease- As we age we get weaker- injuries can be caused
                              Longer for older to heal
                              Diseases like caner are more prominent in older people

Reaction time- As we age, we get slower to react to a stimulus

Experience- Older atheletes are oftern experience- important tool
                       helps us yo know how best to deal with situation

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Effect of gender in sport

Men and woman rarely compete against each other-

Men have longer and heavier bones
Woman have a wider and flatter pelvis
Woman carry more body fat than men
Womans menstrual cycle affect performance
Men have higher testosterone levels- stronger bones
Women more flexible- lower muscle mass
Girls reach there physical maturity at 16/17- boys 3-4 years after


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Sport and personality

Personality can affect type of sports tou like-

Introverted- people tend to be quiet and thoughtful

Extroverted- people are move loud and excitable

Introverts- Concentration                    Extroverts- Exciting
                    Precision                                                Team sports
                    Self motivation                                        Fast paced
                    intricate skills                                          High arousal levels                     Low arousal levels                                  Large, simple motor skills
                    solo performance                                    Low concentration
                    Golf/snooker                                           Rugby/Bosing

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Indirect aggression- this means taking aggression out on an object
                                    Like the ball in golf, tennis or football

Dircet aggression- The aggression is in the direction of another player
                                  Involves physical contact- rugby tackle or boxing

Aggression can lead to breaking rules of the sport or injury

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Performance enhancing drugs

Anabolice agents (steroids)- used by athletes who want to bulk up and increase
                                                   their muscle mass, Make them train harder
                                                - Many side effects- high blood pressure, heart
                                                  disease, cancer.

Stimulants- Reduce pain, increase reaction speed and raise aggression
                     Highly addictive- side effects like strokes, heart and liver problems
                     Can increase injury.

Diuretics- Athletes use diuretics for one or two reasons. Loose weight quickly or
                  to clear trace of other substances

Narcotic analgesics- pain killers, mask pain from injury
                                    Highly addictive and cause withdrawl symptons

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Drug testing

Its monitored closely so its accurate. Can be performed at any time.

Urine samples divided into A and B

A is then tested

If positive then B is also tested

If also positive then they face a life time ban

Refusing a drugs test is taken as failing a drugs test

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It's got pretty much everything ,could do with more on drugs though apart from that its got things i havent even learnt so thats gd

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