Physical Education 1

Pre-release scenerio (2012)

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  • Created by: Georgia
  • Created on: 04-04-12 11:07

Age

Physical prime - late 20's

Physical power - decreases 1.2% a year

Physical activity decreases with age, like:

  • Flexibility 
  • Strength
  • Oxygen capacity, heart becomes less efficient
  • Arteries lose their elasticity, increasing blood pressure

Some things can also increase with age, like:

  • Skill levels, more knowledge and experience
  • Injury recovery time
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Age Division

Organised in year groups or flexibility levels - Under-14, Under-16

Age does not always affect certain people in the same way

Some people can physically mature quicker than others - being able to cope with older opponents

Not to common with physical contact sports

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PESSCL

Introduced in 2003 - increase the % of school children who spend a minimum of 2 hours a week on high-quality PE within and beyond the school curriculum

Aim - by 2010 all children, 5-16, offered at least 4 hours of sport every week

  • 2 hours of high-quality PE within the curriculum
  • 2 hours or more beyond the school day
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PESSCL

8 strand in the strategy, ensure it succeeds

  • Specialist Sports Colleges to be set up - schools that receives extra funding to make a specialists provision for sport 
  • School Sport Partnerships - clusters of schools around sports colleges, employ School Sports Co-ordinators
  • Professional development - providing training for teachers and other adults, local adults its provided for free
  • Step into Sport - encourage involvement in sports leadership and volunteering, working with national governing bodies of 17 sports
  • School/Club links - between departments and the local communities
  • Gifted and Talented - cater specifically for the most talented sports people, benchmarking of excellence, talent identification, provision and support
  • Swimming - raise the profile of swimming, every primary school pupil should be able to swim at least 25m, emphasis of water safety
  • PE and Sport Investigation - working with all the schools and partnerships throughout the country
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PESSYP

Launched in 2008 - transition from the PESSCL strategy, new work strands, same objectives

Aimed at 5-19, compared to 5-16

Five Hour Offer - 2 hours of PE available in normal curriculum, 3 hours beyond the curriculum (extra-curricular)

10 strands to PESSYP

  • Club links - working with the National Governing Body (NGB) of sport to create high quality sports club opportunities. NGB: Organisation that runs a particular sport across the country
  • Coaching - funds made available to School Sport Coaching, more coaches being recruited
  • Competition - formation of National School Sport Week, festivals of sport and intra-school competition


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PESSYP

10 strands to PESSYP

  • Disability - establishment of 450 Multi-Sport Disability Clubs across the School Sport Partnership
  • Extending Activities - primarily aimed at activities that extend beyond traditional sport, e.g. cheerleading, archery, skateboarding
  • Gifted and Talented - providing sport for exceptional young athletes to progress and develop skills in their activity
  • Infrastructure - School Sport Partnerships (SSPs) at the centre of the strategy, deliver 2 hours of PE; develop pathways for extra allocation to be accessed outside of school. Further Education Sport Co-ordinations to aid this strand
  • Leadership and Volunteering - extending 'Step Into Sport', to 'Step On, Step In, Step Up', increase the quantity and diversity of people in leadership and volunteering
  • Swimming - increasing opportunities to take part
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Injury

Chances of getting injured in physical activity is high

Injury prevent is also high, all possible precautions are made

Techniques and safe practice - correct techniques are uses all times, poor technique can result in injury

Internally Caused Injuries - performer is responsible

  • Overuse injuries - training or performing too much, stress fracture (break caused be repeated application of heavy load/pounding) and muscle/tendon injuries
  • Sudden injuries - taking part and there is strain put on to the body owing to lots of stretching, twisting and turning resulting in problems (hamstring pull)
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Injury

Externally Caused Injuries - cause be factors other than the performer

  • Foul play - poor/incorrect technique, rules are in place to prevent this
  • Impact injuries - some contact sports (hockey, rugby), some non-contact sports (netball), equipment (goal posts, hockey stick)
  • Equipment/clothing - damaged (splinters in hockey stick), faulty (goal post not fixed), badly fitting (blisters from trainers), inappropriate clothing (jewellery)
  • Accidents - inevitable, will always happen even with rules

Precautions

  • Risk assessment
  • Warm-Ups
  • All rules and code of conduct is made clear
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First Aid

Head Injuries

  • Person can breathe
  • Put them in coma position, mouth and nose are clear
  • Concussion: loss of consciousness, relaxed limbs, irregular pulse, shallow breathing, dilated pupils

Fractures

  • Upper or lower limbs
  • Snapping can be heard
  • Shape or outline of limb is abnormal, swelling

Hypothermia

  • Rapid cooling of the body when temperature drops quickly
  • Remove any wet clothing, covering them in dry clothing/blankets
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Physical Activity Role - Coach

Responsible for preparing a player in:

  • Skill acquisition
  • Correct technique, new tactics 
  • Physical or mental state

Important in influencing individuals or groups to achieve set goal or in behaviour in sport

Important to know about particular styles of leadership 

Good basic communication skills

Well organised:

  • equipment
  • people attending

Motivational and enthusiastic 

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Fatigue

Feeling of extreme physical or mental tiredness brought on my extreme exertion and can result in temporary loss of strength and energy.

  • Local Muscular Fatigue - body can't carry out what you want to do, may have to stop physical activity
  • Concentration levels will decrease, make more mistakes in judgement
  • Skill levels will decrease, speed and strength decrease

May be forced to stop if these signs are shown in performing

Can be dangerous as techniques are less likely to be performed correctly resulting in injury for the performer and the opponent

This is why substitutions are used in sport, players are replaced when they see signs of fatigue

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Stress

Body's reaction to a change that requires a physical, mental or emotional adjustment or response and this can be linked to other factor in any sporting situation

  • Excitement or suspense can lead to tension - result in tightness in the muscles, affecting physical performance
  • Anxiety - feeling uneasy and apprehensive during and before performance, more likely to make mistakes
    • Some people however find anxiety necessary to help them to focus and prepare
  • Nervousness add to tension levels - lead to more tension and agitated, can lead to people shaking or feeling sick
  • Motivation will decrease

Everyone who participates in physical activity will have experienced stress

Become bored or find performing/practice tedious you are less likely to achieve

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Sports Awards

Sports Performance Awards

Linked to specific sports, such as athletics

Offered in schools:

Sports Leaders UK Level 1 Award in Sports Leadership - anyone aged 14 or older

Can lead to further qualifications:

Level 2 Award in Community Sports Leadership - people over 16

Proficiency Testing and Awards

Increasingly be made available, developed through the NGBs and delivered in schools - PE departments use award schemes to test and reward activities

Swimming awards can qualify people for personal survival or lifesaving - to be a lifesaver you have to have an up-to-date life saving award

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Dietary Considerations

Five main food groups

  • Bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starch food
  • Fruit and vegetables
  • Milk and dairy food
  • Meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein
  • Food and drinks high in fat and/or sugar

Foods in the fifth group are not essential to a healthy diet

  • Malnutrition - physical weakness resulting from insufficient food 
  • Obesity - condition of being extremely fat/overweight, resulting in health problems
  • Anorexia - eating disorder (mainly in girls/women) related to a fear of gaining weight, self-starvation and distorted body image
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Balanced Diet

Carbohydrates

Simple and complex carbohydrates are main sources of energy, essential food

Simple carbohydrates (sugars) - glucose and sugar

Complex carbohydrates (starches) - pasta, bread and rice

Fats

Three types - major source of energy for the body

Commonly found in cheese, cream, meat, cooking oils, margarine and butter

Proteins

'Building blocks' - important in the growth of new tissue

two main sources of protein are animal products and plant foods e.g. beans/nuts

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Balanced Diet

Vitamins

Essential to enable you to maintain good health

Only required in small quantities, usually contain in a normal diet

Minerals

Required in small amounts, minerals are found in vegetables and meats

Water/fluids

Essential, failure to replace lost water can result in dehydration.

Fibre

Important aid the the digestive system

In cereals, wholegrain bread and oats

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Specific Diets

Levels of Participation

Eating food is necessary to provide the body with energy, eating the right food will result in energy for the body and also to maintain the correct body weight

Energy is needed by the body even when it is at rest but when active your BMR is affected so requirements need to be balanced. Number of calories is balanced.

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) - the minimum rate of energy required to keep all of the life processes of the body maintained at rest

Timing of eating is essential as well

  • Before activity - don't eat too close to performing, 2 hours before 
  • During activity - generally you shouldn't eat during performing, however, something light would be fine, like banana's
  • After activity - try to leave the same 2 hour gap as you did before
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Specific Diets

Carbohydrate loading

Particular dietary plan that endurance athletes, mainly marathon runners, involving eating plenty of starch-rich foods

Week before the event

Starch increases the amount of glycogen, delay tiredness and can improve performance in the end stages - slow-release form of energy

High-protein diets

Often used in body-builders, means of building muscle and losing fat

Extra protein in itself does not add to muscle

High-protein foods can be difficult to digest

Should not be eaten just before performance or training

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Fast Twitch Muscles

Fast twitch muscles are present in sprinters, because:

  • Fast twitch muscle fibres can produce small amounts of energy very quickly
  • Fast twitch don't use oxygen to make energy, they don't need a rich blood supply
  • Use anaerobic metabolism to provide energy for muscles
  • Better at generating short bursts of strength or speed as they contract quickly
  • However, they are more likely to fatigue
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Sponsorship

Individuals

They are paid money to:

  • Display the the sponsor's name, wear a brand of clothing, use a particular product
  • Endorse goods, provided with all these free of charge

Teams and Clubs

Teams attract sponsorship for financial deals for:

  • Kit
  • Equipment
  • Playing ground

Events

Increase publicity of sponsor

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