Physical Ecudation, Historical studies

1) Popular Recreation in Pre-industrial Britian

2) Rational recreation in post-industrial Britain

3)Nineteenth- centry public schoolas and their impact on elementary schools

4) Case studys

5) Drill, physical training and physical education in state schools


Popular Recreation

    • Popular recreation:
    • Local: Limited transport communications
    • Unwritten rules/simple: Illetracy, no NGB's only played locally
    • Courtly popular: Pre industrial britian was predominantly a two class socity, based on the feudal system
    • Irregular (occasional): Free time for recreation on Holy days and annual holidays
    • Cruel Violent: Reflecting the harshness of eithteenth century and rural life
    • Rural: Before the industrial revolution, Britian was agricultural
    • Occupational: Work often became the basis for sport
    • Wagering: A chance to go from rags to riches or too show off
    • Simple: Lack of technolighy, purpose-bily facilities
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Popular rescration, pre industrial Britian

  • Eighteenth Centry (1700-1800)
  • Associated with lower class's ie.peasents.
  • It reflects the socity, life and time in which it wxisted.
  • Diffent class's rarley shared activities apart from **** fighting ect. And when upper class's where patrons to sports or wagerd
  • Class and gender where vital factors for affecting opportunities for participation (affected by Oppotunity, provision, esteem)
  • Activites for upper class's were often sophisticated, expensive for lower class's however for lower class's activities were often simple, accesable and inexpensive
  • Church: The puritian ethic gave way to the work ethioc whereby leisure pursuits were acceptable pnly in that they restored people for work.
  • 18th Century life: Tough, pub was centre of village life, badger baiting/ bare knuckle fights, Landlords often provided prizes and primitive equipment, sports used pubs as base
  • Direct link= festivals,illegally staged fist fights, blood sports, e.g. Cricket was designed as for all class's and the ECB stress's it is till that way
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Post industrial Britian

  • New middle class became dominant
  • Rural peasents had migrated to towns finding work in factories
  • Industrial revolutions. agrarian and urban revolutions
  • Massive changes to farming resulting in less jobs

First half of the 19thC

  • Emergence of a poewfull, wealthy middle class
  • Industrialists employed large workfources
  • Rural jobs became harder to find as the use of new agriculture machinery became more extensive
  • Cities were overcrowded, with rented unhygenic rooms
  • Poor living conditions, regular work patterns and excessie work hours took hold as peoples space, energy and time were eroded.
  • A new culture of respect and new surrounding sore games adapting and now festivals
  • New culture of respect and moderatione ie.RSPCA
  • Railway
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Characteristics of rational recreation

  • Fair play: Public School influence
  • Amateurisim: Class structure/ spectatorism
  • Control of gambling: Increased law and order
  • Exclusive/elitist: Social class and gender discrimination
  • Purpose-built facilities: Technological advancment
  • Urban/ suburban: The revolutions
  • Codification/administration: Buisness and administration: Business and adminstration skills/ ex-public school boys
  • Regular: Increased free time and improved transport
  • Regional/ national:improved
  • Respectable: middle class influence
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Post industrial Briatian

The second half of the 19th century

  • Improved oppotunity and provision, dur to reform and improvement and inc. freedom
  • Earnings improved, work hours were reduced
  • Industrialists wanted as healthy work fource so offerd social, sporting recreation
  • Annual excersion trips to the sea side
  • Codified games such as rugby football came from Ox
  • Municipal parks and urban swimminig baths for lower class's.
  • Improved transport and communictaions were the greatest causes of changes to sport.
  • Increased chance to take part and watch
  • Able to take people further
  • Therefore standardised set of regulations and rules
  • Class determined income, housing, lifestyle and sporting oppotunities
  • Saturday half day and early closing movement.
  • Parliment wanted to reduce working hours especially in shops
  • Between 1870-1890 most workers have been given their half day of freedom on saturday afternoon
  • 1890's a paid weeks holiday was common
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Nineteenth- centry public schools and their impact

Clarnedon report: To enquire into the nature and application of the endowments,funds and revenue belonging to or recieved by the colleges

  • Boarding:Time available which was increasingly spent playing games
  • Expanding: As numbers increased houses were wjich became the hub of games
  • Endowed: Well endowed schools that recieved large gofts of money or property could build facilities and employ more assistant masters and coaching professionals
  • Non-local: A great varity of regional games were adopted and adapted by individual skills
  • Gentry: influential families brought status and money and influenced the tyoes of activities brought into schools.
  • Boys: Great energy and enthusiasm to be channeld into games
  • Spartan:Harsh treatment and living conditions prepared boys for the rigours and competitive sport of adult life
  • Controlled by trustees: Trustees were influential people keen to promote the school, so keen to incest in sporting success.
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The three development stages of athleticism

  • Schools were institions in their own right
  • Public schools reflected changes that were happening in socity
  • By mid 19th Centry the RSPCA was succefully reducing cruelty, police and changing manners and tastes reduced bare fist fights
  • Headmasters were keen to be seen as enlightend,
  • Stage one (early 19th C)= Boy culture,bullying,brutality
  • Stage two (Mid 19th C)= Dr. Arnold, social control
  • Stage three (late 19thC)= Atheltecisim. spread of team games
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Stage One (1790-1824)

  • Brutal, to such extremes as blood sports and bare fist fighting
  • "Boy culture" reflected coonfrontational behaviour of the french and American revolutions
  • Absence of plice fource ment unrest was delt with by the army
  • Recreational activities organised by boys for pure enjoyment and to relieve boredom
  • Masters beat children and couldnt give a toss outside lessons
  • Increasing number of upper class boys enrolled in preparatory schoold bringing theor customs
  • "Melting pot" = Varity of areas were mixed and moulded into schoolboy games that were to become future traditions
  • Expansion of house system and more social control
  • Games and sports would ultimatly provide the medium for social control
  • Instutional popular recreation, with activites ranging from childlike(hoops) to barbaric(Bare knuckle fights)
  • Cricket, the rural game already codified and played by both classes was immidatly adopted by the schoold while fox hunting was adapted to hare and hounds
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Stage two (1828-1842)

  • Time of change both in socity and at large in english public schools.
  • Transport and communications were dramatically developing.
  • freedom and wild escapades of stage one became more and more out of place.
  • Dr Thomas Arnold: Headmaster of rugby, become obsessed by the immortality and sinfulness of boys and was determined to reform them
  • Arnold used games as a vehicle for establishing social control
  • Used church to establish a moral code (muscular christianity)
  • More trusting and sympathetic relationship with sixthformers to become role models
  • Masters gradually adopted roles of mentor and guide
  • Games of interhouse/interhouse cricket kept boys out of troubleas they were snet to bed exhauseted.
  • Muscular chritianity is a combination of godliness and manliness
  • Games were reformed along with the schools in whicg they existed
  • Schools and their games grew in status as they opend themselves to reforms
  • Growth of house systems
  • restrictions on bullying on brutality
  • games to achieve social control
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Stage three(1842-1914)

  • Magnificent games feilds were symbols of athleticism- the combination of physical endevour with moral integrity.
  • Specialist facilities such squash courts.
  • Land was bought and schools re-located purpously to aquire more spce for team games
  • Games no a longer a vehicle for social control but as a vehicle for developing the character or the boys who played them.
  • The second melting pot was begining to operate ie. the mixing of games and traditions from a varity of schools and universitys,
  • The impact of games- playing oxbridge graduates returnuing to their schools as assistant masters was important
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Ex-public school boys

Ex public school boys became:

  • Teachers: Often at school they studied at
  • Industrialits: Keen to spread the values of athleticism to their workfource
  • Parents: Influencing their own children, often sending them to their old school
  • Community leaders/ politicians: Perhaps in local government or donating money to the town
  • Community members: Establishing, running and playing for locaql sports clubs
  • Army officers: Increasing the morale and fitness of their soliders taking british games abroad
  • Vicars/priests: Supporting their parishners in the formation of youth clubs and parish teams
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Football through the stages of schools


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If this had been finished off to cover the entire OCR Historical Studies course for A2 P.E it would have been perfect..



Shame about the spellings and grammar errors.

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