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The importane of photosynthesis

What is the process of photosynthesis? What is it used to do? from what? What do scientists think this first evolved in? ancestors of modern day what? How many years ago?why is it maybe the most important biochemical on earth? What type of energy does is transformed into what energy? What is that energy then available to? What does it also release? From what? Into where? so what also depends on it for what?

What can autotrophs synthesise? Such as? From what? What were the first life forms on earth? What are they? What do they syntehsise? From what? What are many chemoautorophs? Give an example? Where do they obtain their energy from? Or? Where do chemoautropgs also live? Near what? Supporting what? What are organisms that can photosyntehsise describe as? What is there source of energy? And raw materials? Like? Name some photoautorophs? What are the majority of producers on earth? Name some heterotrophs? What cant they make? What do they do instead? what do they then do? such as?

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The importane of photosynthesis

whereby light energy from the sun is transformed into chemical energy and used to syntehsis large organic molecules from inorganic substances, prokayrotes (bateria), 2500million ways, since nearly all life on Earth depends on it, light energy into chemical potential energy, consumers and decomposers, oxygen from water into the atmosphere so all aerobes for respiration

complex organic molecules, carbohydrtaes lipids proteins nuceliec acids vitamins, inoragani molecules and an energy source,prokaryotes that synthesised complex organic molecules using energy derived from exergonic chemical reactions, bacteria, nitrifying bateria that are important in teh recycling of nitrogen, oxidising ammonia to nitrate or oxidingis nitrite to nitrate, living in darknes near thermal oceanic vennts, speific food chains in those areas, photoautotrophs, sunlight and the raw materials are inorganic molecules such as carbon dixoide and water, plants some bacteria and some protocists (algae), photoautotrophs, animals fungi bacteria, their own food but digest complex organic molecules into simpler soluable ones from whcih they syntehsise complex molecules such as lipids protisn and nuceliec acids

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The importane of photosynthesis

What do both photoautotrophs and heterotrophs both do? what process made these complex organic molecules? what is the process that releases the chemical potential energy? What do they use for aerobic respiration? Where does this oxygen appear? Made from what process? Give the equation that summarises photosynthesis? What did the eartsh atmosphere once contain? What did organisms evolve to be able to do? what does this release into the atmosphere? And produce what? Give the equation? What does the equation show photosynthesis release? What do scientists find when using they used water containing radioactive isotopes of oxygen? What happened when they gave the plant carbon dioxide containing radioactive oxygen? What did this show?

What do photoautotrophs have special of? called? what does the equation above only do? how many stages? What does each stage consist of?

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The importane of photosynthesis

can release the chemical potential energy in complex organic molecules made during photosynthesis, respiration, oxygen which first appeared in the atmopshere after being releaswed from photosynthesis, 6CO2+6H20(+light energy) -->C6H12O6+6O2, free oxygen, use the oxygen for aerobic respiration, carbon dixoide into the atmopshere and produces water, free oxygoxygen produced during photosynthesis was radioactive, the oxygen produced was not radioactive, the oxygen is released from water

organelles within their cells called chloroplasts, summarises the process it happens in two main stages, each stage consisiting of smaller steps,

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How the of chloroplasts enables them to carry out

Where does photosynthesis take place? Called? what are there size? What sort of shape? How long? What is each one surrounded by? called? what is there space for? About how wide? Where is it? Is the outer membrane permeable or not? To what? What about the inner one? What does it have embedded in it? What is it also? Called? how are they arranged? What is each stack of lamellae called? whats the plural? What are between the grana? What are the two distinct regions in chloroplasts? When can both of these regions be seen? What is the stroma? What stage of photostynthesis happens here? what is located there that is a necessity? What are also in the stroma? Also what two types of ribosomes? What are the grana? Called? what are these the site of? during what stage of photosynthesis? What can only see the thylakoids?

What does the inner membrane have embedded? What can it control the entry and exit of? between? what does it have many of? consisting of stacks of up to how many thylakoid membranes? What does it give large of? for what three things? What are they all inovled in? what are photosynthetic pigemnts? Whatd does each one absorb a range of? what are the photosynthetic pigments arranged into? Called? what do they allow? What do proteins embedded in the grana hold in place? What dose the fluid filled stroma contain? What are they needed to do? what are the grana surrounded by? why is this significant? What can chloroplasts make some of? needed for? Usig what? And what assemble the proteins?

What can photosynthetic pigments do? how do they appear to us? What are there many of? how do they act? To capture what? What are they in? how are they arranged? Called what? What holds them in place?

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How the structure of chloroplasts enables them to

within organelles called chloroplasts, vary in size and shape, disc-shaped, 2-10um long, double membrane, envelope, intermembrane space, 10-20um wide, between the inner and outer membrane, permeable to small ions, less permeable and has transported proteins embedded in it, lamella (thin palates) stacked up like pennies, granum, grana, intergranal lamellae, the stroma and the grana, light microscope, fluid-filled matrix, light-independent stage, necasary enzymes, starch grains and oil droplets as well as DNA and prokaryote-type ribosomes, stacks of flattened membrane compartments, thylakoids, light absorption and ATp syntehsis, light-dependent stage of photosynthesis, electron microsocope,

transport proteins, substances between the cytoplasm and the stroma inside the chloroplasts, grana, 100, large surface area for the photosynthetic pigments electron carriers and ATP synthase enxymes, light-dependant reactioon, special structure called photosystems, allow maximum absorption of light energy, photosystems in place, the enymes need to catalyse the reactions of the light-independant stage of photosynthesis, the stroma so the products of the light-dependant reactions which are needed for the light-independant reaction can readily pass into the stroma, proteins needed for photosynthesis, genetic instruction in the chloroplast DNA and chloroplast ribosomes to assemble the proteins,

molecules that absorb certain wavelengths and reflect others, as the colour of the light wavelengths that they are reflecting, different pigments that act toegther to capture as much light energy as possible, thylakoid membranes arranged in funnel-shaped structures called photosystems held in place by proteins

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How the structure of chloroplasts enables them to

What is chlorophyll a mixture of? what do they all have? What do they cosnist of? what is the porphyrin group similar to? Found where? what does it contain though? Instead of what? What does light hitting chlorphyll cause? how many forms of chlorphyll? Name them? What do both appear? What color does each of them absorb? Whats different though? Whats this called? where are both found? What are they known as? What is p680 found? What is its peak absorbtion? Where is p700 found? What is its peak absorbtion? What does chlorophyll a also absorb? Wavelength of what? What wavelength does chlorophyll b absorb? What color does it appear?

What do carotenoids reflect? But absorb? What don’t they contain? What aren’t they directly involved in? what sort of light wavelengths do they aborb? What energy do they pass? Where? name the two maiin carotenoid pigements? And there color?

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How the structure of chloroplasts enables them to

pigments,similiar molecular structure, long phytol (hydrocarbon) chain ad a porphyrin group,haem, hawemoglobin, a magnesium atom instead of an iron one, a pair of electrons assicaited with the magnesium to become excited, two, p680 and p700, yellow-green. red light at a slightly different wavelngeth (absorption peak), centre of photosystems and are known as the primary pigment reaction centre, photosystem II, light at a wavelength of 680nm, photosystem I and, 700nm, also absorbs blue light  of 450nm, around 500nm and 640nm, blue-gree,

yellow and oragne light and absorb blue light, porphyrin group and are not directly involved in the light-dependent reaction, that are not well well absorbed by chlorophylls and pass the energy assoicated with thatlight to the chlroophull a t the base of the photsystem, carotene (orange) and xanthophyll (yellow)

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The Light Dependant Stage

Where does the light dependant stage of photosynthesis take place? Of the what? What system are photoyntehtic pigments? Where are they embedded?where does photosystem 1 occur mainly? What about ps2? What do these pigements do? from? What does it do with it? In what form? What system is used first? Why named that way round then?

What does photosystem 2 also contain? What can this enzyme do? when it can it do this? What is this splitting of water called? give equation? What is some of the oxygen produced used for? What does much of it do? through what? To where? what is water the source of? what are they used in? to produce what? What are these protons accepted by? called? what does it become? What is this used in? to reduce what? And produce what? What is water also the source of? to replace what? What sort of material is water in photosynthesis? What dose it also keeps a plant? Enabling them to do what? What is a by-product of photosynthesis? Where does it come from?

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The Light Dependant Stage

thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast, photosystems, embedded in these membranes, on the intergranal lamella, granal lamellae, trap light energy from sunlight so that it can be converted to chemical energy in the form of ATP

enzyme that in the presence of light can split water in H+ions(protons) electrons and oxygen, photolysis, 2H20-->4H++4e-+02, plant for its aerobic respiration but much of it diffuses out of the leaves through stomata into the air, hydrogen ions which are used in chemiosmosis to produce ATP, a coneyzme NADP(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) which becomes reduced NADP, to be used during the light-independent stage to reduce carbon dioxide and produce organic molecules, electrons, those lost by the oxidised chlorphyll, raw material. turgid enablling them to function, oxygen from water,

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The Light Dependant Stage

What sort of nature does water have? How do we you usually think it travels? How can we also think of travelling? Called? what happens when a photon hits a chlorophyll molecule? What do they become? What are these electrons captured by? what are electron acceptors? When are they reduced? what are they passed along? Where are they embedded? what are the electron carriers? What do they transfer? What do they contain? what happens as electrons pass along the cgain of electron carriers? What does this pump across what? Into what space? What do they do here? what I formed across what? Are the protons up or down the gradient? Through what? Assossiated with what enzymes? What is this flow of enzymes called? what does it produce? joinig what to make what? What energy comes from the proton flow? What is it converted to? In what? What stage is this used in? of what? What is the making of ATP using light energy called? how many types? Name them?

What does cyclic-photophosphorylation only use? where do the excited electrons pass? And back to where? what is there none of? what isn’t generated? What are small amounts of made? What may this be used in? or in what cells? What do their chloroplasts contain? what do they do in guard cells? Loweing what? Causing what to follow? Via? What does this cause the guard cells to do? and opens the what?

What does non-cyclic photophosphorylation involve? What does light strike? Exciting what? What do they do? from what? What do the electrons pass along? What is released? And used to do what? What has light also struck? What has been lost? What two things join NADP? Where aer the protns from? Where have they diffused from? What does NADP become? What do the electrons from the oxidised photosystem2 replace? What do from photlysed water replace? What do protons from photolysed water take part in? to make what? What are they captured by? where? what will they be used in?

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The Light Dependant Stage

dual nature, waves, particles that we call photos, theenergy of the photon is transferred to two electrons and they become excited, electron acceptors and passed along a series of electron carriers embedded in the thylakoid membranes, proteins that contain iron atoms, energy is released, protons across the thylakoid membranes into the thylakoid space where they accumulate, a proton gradient through channels assoicated with ATP syntahse enzymes, chemiosmosis, a force that joins ADP and Pi to make ATP, kinetic enrgy, converted to chemical energy in the ATP molecules, light-independenat stage of photosynthesis, photophosphorylation, cyclic and non-cyclic,

photosystem I (p700), to an electron acceptor and bac to the chlorophyll molecule from which they were lost, photolysis of water and no generation of redduced NADP, small aounts of ATP, light-independent reaction of photosynthesis or used in guard cells (their chloroplast contain oly photosynstem I) to brig in potassiium ions, water potential and causing water to follow by osmosis, guard cells to awell and opens the stomata

photosystems PSI and PSII, photosystem II, a pair of electrons that leave chlorophyll molecule from the primary pigment reaction centre, a chain of electron carriers and the energy released is usd to synthesise ATP, photosystem I and  a pair of electrons has been lost, these elctrons along with protons in the stroma (which may have doffused from the thylakoid space through ATP syntahse) join NADP, redduced NADP, electrons lost fron PSI, those lost by the oxidised chlorphyll in PSII, chemiosmosis, ATP, captured by NADP in stroma, light-independent stage

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The Light- Indepenedent Stage

Where does the light independent stage take place? What happens in this stage? What is it also called? is light used directly? What is used instead? what happens to the ligh dependant stage if light ceases?

What is the source for the production of all large organic molecules? what are these molecules used as? Or act as?

What does carbon dioxide from the air do? through what? Where are they? What does it then diffuse through? Where? what does it reach? What four things does it then diffuse through? Into what? What does co2 combine with in the stroma? Called? what is it? What catalyses the reaction? Name it? Usually called what though? What does RUBP become? What does this mean? What is the product of this reaction? Name it? What has happened to the co2 at this point? What happens to GP? To what? Called? what is used in this reaction from the ligh dependant reaction? How many molecules of TP are recycled? By what? Using what? From what reaction?

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The Light- Indepenedent Stage

Stroma of chloroplasts, calvin cycle, not directly, products of the light-dependent stage are used, will ceases if light isnt availiable

carbon dixoide and oxygen, structuresor act as energy stores or sources for all the (carbon-based) life forms on this planet

diffuses into the leaf through open stoamta, underside of the leaf, throughout the air spaces in the spongy mesophyll and reaches palisade mesophyll layer, then it diiffuses through the thin cellulose walls the cell surface membrane the ctyoplasm and the chloroplast envelope into the stroma, 5-carbon compound called ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP)( a carbon dixoide acceptor), enzyme ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase, rubisco, carboxylated (combined with carbon dixoide so it has a carboxyly group), two molecules of a 3-carbon compound glycerate 3-phosphate (TP), ATP and reduced NADP, fivie out every six molecules of TP(3c) are recycled by phosphorylation using aTP from the llight-dependent reation to three moelcules of RuBP(5c)

amino acids and fatty acids, hexose (6c) sugars like glucose and fructose, isomerised to form another hexose sugar fructose, disachharide sucrose the sugar translocated in phloem sieve tubes, polymerised into another carbohydrate(polysachharide) such as cellulose and starch, glycerol, combined with fatty acids fromed from GP to make lipids

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Limiting Factor

Give the equation for photosynthesis? Where is the chlrophyll present? What are the factors needed? Where are they? What rate do they influence? And therefore what other rate?

Is photosynthesis a simple process? Do the facots that affect its rate operate at different times? What is the limiting factor then? what if there wasn’t enough sun? define: limiting factor? What did Blackman investigate? What happens to its rate at constant temperature? What if there is zero light intensity? What happens as light intensity increases? So what is light intensity? What happen at higher light intensitys? What is light intensity no longe? Why? So what is the limiting factor? Example? What will increasing co2? Will it be forever? What will happen eventually? Why? What is the other factor? What will increasing it do? what will it reach? Will theyre be a limting factor then? what happens at to high temp? what does the law of limiting factor state?

What percent is earths atmosphere co2? Depending on? What are the average figures? How much was there 500million years ago? What period did this fall? When what was made? When did it rise again? What did it do then? until what? What has began to do? why? What does this release? That used to be what in what period? What do the oceans act as? What and how much have they absorbed? What can absorb co2? What produce just as much as they take in though? Through what? What about greenhouses? How can growers introduce more co2? What will enahcned levels of co2 increase? Provided what though?

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Limiting Factor

6CO2_6H20--> c6H12O6 +6O2, in the organelle chlorplasts, light and supplies of carbon dioxide an dwater are in the enviroment, the rate at which photosynthesis proceeds, therefore the rate at which food for all organisms on the planet becomes availiable

complex process, no simultanesously, the factor at the least favourable level, limiting factor, the effect of caryig light intensity and temperature on the rate of photosyntehsis, varies with light intensity, no photosyntehsis, the rate of photosyntehsis increases, light intensity is limiting the process, plateus, the limtiing facotr, as chaning the intensity does not alter the rate, other factors such as carbon dixiode, increase the rate of photosyntehsis but not indefintiyl, will plateu ahaon as another facotr will be the limtiing factor such as temp, will increase the rate of photosyntehsis, plateu where another factor is the limtiing facotr, proteins such as enxymes involved in the calvin cycle may denature,  at any given moment the rate of metbaolic proess is limited ny the factor that is present at its least favourable value

0.03%-0.06, locaion of the planet, 0.039% y volume or 0.058% by mass, 20times this amount of co2 in the atmopshere, carboniferous period, fossils fuels were made, triassic and jurassic, gradually decreased until industrilisation, rises again, burning of fossil fuels by humans, carbon dixoide tat was fixed during carboniferous period, cabron sinks and have absorbed about 1/3, growing forests produce just as much, gorow in proimity even with ventiliation level of co2 drop, more co2 by burning methane or oil fired heaters, will increase the rate of photoysntheiss provided that no other factor islimited

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Limiting Factor

What is light directly proportional to if it’s the limiting factor? What happens as it increases? What are lights three main effects? What are the electrons and protons involved in? what is this? When will the rate of photosynthesis vary due to light intensity?

what isnt affected very much by temperature? however what  is? between what temps does the rate double? what happens above 25? why? prevtnign what? what will high tmeps also cause loss of? leading to what? limiting the what?

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Limiting Factors

when light is the limiting factor then the rate of photosynthesis is directl proportional to the light intesity, rate of photosynthesis increases, it causes stomata to open so that cabon duixide can enter leaves, it is trapped by chlorphyll where it excites electrons, it splits water molecules to produce protons, photophosphoryltion producing ATP for the fixation of carbon dixide, vary throughout the day as light intensity increases and then decreases

the photochemical reactions arent much infoeucned by temp, enyme catlaysed reactions of thecalvin cycle are, 0 and 25 the rate approcimatly doubles for each 10oc rise, above 35 the rate evls of  and then falls as enzymes ork lesss effiecntly and as oxygen more successfuly competes for the active site of rubisco and prevets it from accepting carbon dixoide, more water loss from stomata leading to a stress response in which stomata close limiting the avaiability of carbon dixiude

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Investigating the factors that affect the rate of

what two things can be measured? what have we measured if we measire the photosyntehsis happening per unit time (per second per minute) what could we also measure the volume of? the rate of? or the rate of? how is the rate of photosyntehsi usually found? what is thi? what limitations does this methodhave? or there may be something dissoled where?

what two pieces of apparatus are used? how are they set up to assure what? where is th gas given of by the plant over time collected? what does the experiementer manipulate the syrigne to do? against what? what can this lgneth be converted to? if we know what? give formula?

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Investigating the factors that affect the rate of


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