- Vegetative - sounds of discomfort or reflexive acions, eg crying, coughing. - 0-7mths
- Cooing - vocal play with open mouthed vowel sounds. Laughter starts, hard consonants and vowels are produced, pitch and volume are experimented with. - 4-7mths
- Babbling - repeated patterns of consonant-vowel sounds, reduplicated sounds and non-reduplicated sounds - 6-12mths
- Proto-words - word-like vocalisations used consistently for the same meaning - 9-12mths
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- Babies first use their vocal chords for survival and emotional needs.
- 'Cooing' and 'babbling' are the beginnings of prosodic features - they are experimenting with intonation, pitch and tone.
- As babies learn to talk they undergo -
- Phonemic expanision - increase in the sounds they can produce (not necessarily sounds from their native langauge)
- Phonemic contraction - decrease in the range of sounds to those only found in their native language.
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How Are Sounds Produced?
- Different sounds are produced through different combinations of the following:
- Control of the airstream
- Use of vocal chords - voiced vs unvoiced sounds
- Place of articulation - using lips, teeth, tongue, roof of mouth to create sounds.
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Broad Types of Sound
- Consonant - a sound produced when the vocal tract is blocked or restricted to create audible friction.
- Vowel - a sound produced without closure or audible friction
- Dipthong - a vowel with a percepible change in quality during a syllable
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Detailed Types of Sound
- Plosives - also called 'stop consonants', the airflow is briefly blocked. - p, t, k, - b, d, g,
- Fricatives - airflow is partially blocked and air flows in a steady stream - f, s, sh, th (thigh) - v, th (the), z, s (leisure)
- Affricatives - a combination of plosives and fricatives - tch (church) - g (judge)
- Nasals - air moves through the nose - m, n, ng
- Approximants - similar sounds to vowels - w, r, - j,
- Laterals - created with the tongue on the ridge of the teeth - l
(Examples given are unvoiced phonemes followed by voiced phonemes)
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Early Phonological Mistakes
- Deletion - omitting the final consonant
- Substitution - replacing one sound with another, particularly those that are more difficult to pronounce and so will develop later.
- Addition - adding an extra vowel on the end, to creat a consonant-vowel-consonant-vowel pattern.
- Assimilation - changing one consonant or vowel for another
- Reduplication - repeating the whole syllable
- Consonant cluster reductions - consonant clusters can be difficult to pronounce, so they are reduced to smaller units.
- Deletion of unstressed syllable - omitting the opening/unstressed syllable of a word.
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Berko and Brown 'Fis' Study - 1960s
- Child called a plastic fish a 'fis'
- When asked by adult if it was their 'fish' they answered yes.
- When asked by adult if it was their 'fis' they answered no.
- The child may have assumed that a 'fis' was a different object, since they were trying to say 'fish'.
- The study suggests a child has the capapbility to understand befoe they can correctly pronounce the full range of phonemes.
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