Phonology (CLA)

Revision cards about phonological development, with theorists. 

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Pre-Verbal Stages

  • Vegetative - sounds of discomfort or reflexive acions, eg crying, coughing. - 0-7mths
  • Cooing - vocal play with open mouthed vowel sounds. Laughter starts, hard consonants and vowels are produced, pitch and volume are experimented with. - 4-7mths
  • Babbling - repeated patterns of consonant-vowel sounds, reduplicated sounds and non-reduplicated sounds - 6-12mths
  • Proto-words - word-like vocalisations used consistently for the same meaning - 9-12mths
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Pre-Verbal Issues

  • Babies first use their vocal chords for survival and emotional needs.
  • 'Cooing' and 'babbling' are the beginnings of prosodic features - they are experimenting with intonation, pitch and tone. 
  • As babies learn to talk they undergo - 
      • Phonemic expanision - increase in the sounds they can produce (not necessarily sounds from their native langauge) 
      • Phonemic contraction -  decrease in the range of sounds to those only found in their native language. 
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How Are Sounds Produced?

  • Different sounds are produced through different combinations of the following: 
      • Control of the airstream
      • Use of vocal chords - voiced vs unvoiced sounds 
      • Place of articulation - using lips, teeth, tongue, roof of mouth to create sounds. 
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Broad Types of Sound

  • Consonant - a sound produced when the vocal tract is blocked or restricted to create audible friction. 
  • Vowel - a sound produced without closure or audible friction
  • Dipthong - a vowel with a percepible change in quality during a syllable
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Detailed Types of Sound

  • Plosives - also called 'stop consonants', the airflow is briefly blocked. - p, t, k, - b, d, g, 
  • Fricatives - airflow is partially blocked and air flows in a steady stream - f, s, sh, th (thigh) - v, th (the), z, s (leisure) 
  • Affricatives - a combination of plosives and fricatives - tch (church) - g (judge) 
  • Nasals - air moves through the nose - m, n, ng
  • Approximants - similar sounds to vowels - w, r, - j, 
  • Laterals - created with the tongue on the ridge of the teeth - l 

(Examples given are unvoiced phonemes followed by voiced phonemes)  

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Early Phonological Mistakes

  • Deletion - omitting the final consonant
  • Substitution - replacing one sound with another, particularly those that are more difficult to pronounce and so will develop later.
  • Addition - adding an extra vowel on the end, to creat a consonant-vowel-consonant-vowel pattern. 
  • Assimilation - changing one consonant or vowel for another 
  • Reduplication - repeating the whole syllable
  • Consonant cluster reductions - consonant clusters can be difficult to pronounce, so they are reduced to smaller units. 
  • Deletion of unstressed syllable - omitting the opening/unstressed syllable of a word. 
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Berko and Brown 'Fis' Study - 1960s

  • Child called a plastic fish a 'fis'
  • When asked by adult if it was their 'fish' they answered yes.
  • When asked by adult if it was their 'fis' they answered no. 
  • The child may have assumed that a 'fis' was a different object, since they were trying to say 'fish'. 
  • The study suggests a child has the capapbility to understand befoe they can correctly pronounce the full range of phonemes. 
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