The IPA

  • Created by: Chessie
  • Created on: 09-05-19 09:19

Consonants of the IPA: What are articulators?

A quick introduction about the types of articulators:

Labial = the lips coming together to form a sound

Dental = the tongue being pressed against the teeth (think: dentist tools)

Labio-Dental = the lower lip being pressed against the upper teeth

Hard Palate = the tongue being pressed against the hard palate (centre of the roof of the mouth)

Soft Palate = the tongue being pressed against the soft palate or 'velum' (back part of the roof of the mouth)

Alveolar = the tongue being pressed on against the alveolar ridge (front of the roof of the mouth)

  • It should be noted that vowels do not involve any restriction of airflow in the mouth.
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Consonants of the IPA: Plosives

Plosive consonants are produced when the articulators come together to stop airflow and are then released:

b = 'buh' - bib (labial)

p = 'puh' - pip (labial)

t = 'tuh' - ten (alveolar)

d = 'duh' - den (alveolar)

g = 'guh' - get (soft palate)

k = 'kuh' - cat (soft palate)

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Consonants of the IPA: Affricates and Nasals

Affricate consonants are produced when articulators come together and are quickly released:

d͡ʒ = 'juh' - judge (hard palate)

t͡ʃ = 'chuh' - church (hard palate)

Nasal consonants are produced when articulators stop the airflow- air is released through the nose:

m = 'muh' - man (labial)

n = 'nuh' - now (alveolar)

n = 'ng' - sing (soft palate)

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Consonants of the IPA: Fricatives

Fricative consonants are produced when the articulators come together with a small gap in which the sound is produced from:

θ = 'thah' - thigh (dental)

ð = 'the' - this (dental)

f = 'fuh' - fish (labio-dental)

s = 'seh' - set (alveolar)

z = 'zuh' - zoo (alveolar)

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Consonants of the IPA: Laterals and Approximates

Lateral consonants are produced when articulators come together and air is released over the sides of the tongue:

Remember: lateral!

l = 'leh' - let (alveolar)

Approximate consonants are produced when the articulators never fully touch:

w = 'wuh' - wet (labial)

r = 'ruh' - ride (alveolar)

j = 'yuh' - yet (hard palate)

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Vowels of the IPA: Short Vowels

Remembering the definition of a 'short vowel' sound is fairly simple: it seems common-sensical but they have one snappy, staccato-ish sound, such as the ones below:

ɪ = 'ih' - it

e = 'eh' - pe

æ = 'a' - pat

ɒ = 'o' - pot

ʌ = 'uh' - but

ʊ = 'uuh' - book

ə = 'er' - mother

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Vowels of the IPA: Long Vowels

Again, long vowel sounds tend to last for a longer duration than shorter vowels. They can be easily remembered because of the colon-like symbol that follows them:

ɪ: = 'ee' - bean

ɜ: = 'ur' - nurse

a: = 'ah' - barn

ɔ: = 'orh' - born

u: = 'ooh' - boot

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Vowels of the IPA: Dipthongs

Dipthongs are a combination of two sounds where a speaker moves from one sound to another across the pronunciation of one vowel:

aɪ = 'eye' - bite

eɪ = 'ay' - bait

ɔɪ = 'oi' - boy

əʊ = 'oe' - toe

aʊ = 'ow' - house

ɪə = 'ee' - ear

eə = 'ai' = air

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What occurs regarding IPA acquisition at the age o

Children are able to pronounce all of the vowel sounds and 2/3 of the consonants

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What occurs regarding IPA acquisition at the age o

Children are able to only have difficulty with a few consonants and they are proficient in the rest.

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What occurs regarding IPA acquisition at the age o

The child can confidently and correctly use all vowels and consonant sounds.

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What is easiest for a child to pronounce- consonan

Consonants at the start of the word are the easiest to acquire- consonants at the beginning of the word are easiest to pronounce. Consonants at the end are more difficult (e.g. - 'push' vs 'tip').

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