Philosophy and Ethics

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Christians and the Church

Church - Christian place of worship                                                                                The church - Christian community

How can Church help you less formally?


  • The church can help you by praying and worshipping together
  • They give opportunities to talk
  • They can help if Christians accept authoirty of the church

Official ways the Church can help?

  • Leaders decide how to respond to moral decisons. The pope and the council of bishop act as the magisterium.            
  • The magisterium offer moral guidance.    (ROMAN CATHOLIC)
  • Some churches discuss moral issues in assembly. The assembly decides how members should respond.                      (PROTESTANT)
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Christians and conscience

Conscience - An inner feeling or voice viewed as a guide of right or wrong.

Where does it come from?

  • We learn to feel guilty when we are punished for bad behaviour.
  • Law helps our conscience to develop our minds by giving a clear guide about right and wrong.
  • Christians learn how God wants to be from the Bible, Church and families.
  • From books, TV, internet and people.
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Situation ethics

Situation ethics - The idea that Christians should base moral decisons on what the most loving this is. (JOSEPH FLETCHERS IDEA)

''My command is this: Love each other as I have loved you''

Similar to the Golden Rules which Jesus taught that was important. Jesus only followed this.

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Moral Authority

Christians look at 4 authorities when making decisons:

  • Following the laws and teaching of the bible.
  • Following teachings and guidance of the churches.
  • They use their conscience.
  • They use situation ethics.
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Human rights

Human rights - Basic rights and freedoms human beings are entitled.


Human rights act 1998 

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Why human rights are important to Christians

  • Every human beings is created by God and God's creation should be treated with respect.
  • God loves everyone equally so they should be treated equally.
  • Teaching of the bible are in line with most human rights laws.

Basic values are in the 10 commandments:

''You shall not murder''
''You shall not steal''
''You shall not commit adultry''
''Honour your mother and father''
''You shall not lie'' 

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Democratic and Electoral processes

The UK is a representive democracy which is government by an elected parliament. A vote is held every 5 years for the political party. Voting is important as it affects peoples liveson running the country. Democracy means everyone can vote, to decide how the country is going to be run.

Democratic - Ways in which citizens can take part in government

Electoral - Way which voting is organised

Political Party - A grop that tries to be elected into power

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Moral Duties

Golden rule - Jesus teaching that you should treat people as you would like them to treat you

Honour your parents
Do not murder
Do not steal
Do not commit adultry
Do not lie
Do not covet peoples belongings 

Sermon = Love enemies, Give to the needy, Don't store tresure on Earth. Don't judge.

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Genetic Engineering

Genes make up DNA. DNA is a code that determines what you have. Genetic engineering is the process where structure and characteristics of genes are changed. They can be added, replaced or take away. Disorders can be removed or improvements can be added.

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Uses of genetic engineering

Creates GM crops
Creates medicene
Helps couples hvae healthier babies
Creates animals that are bigger and healthier which produces more meat
Can clone animals for food
Can clone humans to replace dead relatives
Can grow organs 


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Issues of genetic engineering

Nature is complex and no one knows what it can effect. Nobody knows whether GM crops can have a negative effect on the planet or on humans.

In the wrong hands, technologies could be dangerous and they could beused to mass produce substances to be used as weapons

Maybe getting rid of genetic disadvantages is not a good thing as its makes us unique human beings.

Could lead to designer babies 

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Accepting genetic engineering

Christians believe that God has given them 'dominion the fish of the sea ,the birds of the air and every living thing that moves on the earth' and would argue that includes the genes of these organisms and growing GM foods would be acceptable as long as it did not harm them.

The golden rule of Jesus is 'do to others what you would do to you' Some christians would say that it means genetic engineering is acceptable when it is the cure on painful diseases and disorders.

Jesus healed many people, which suggests that Christians should di akk they can to heal and improve the health of humans.

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Disagreeing with genetic engineering

Only God can create life and humans should not 'play' God.

Roman Catholics believe that human life begins at conception and see an embryo as a person. These christians are opposed on research that is involved with embryos which are then discarded which could be seen as murder.

Most Christians would be opposed to genetic engineering that corrects defects which do not cause suffering.

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Environmental Hazards

Global warming - the increase in the temperature of the Earth's atmosphere

Pollution - Contamination of the enviroment

Conservation - Protecting natural resources 

Natural resources -Naturally occuring materials such as oil, fertile land which humans uses.

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Possible Solutions

Create less waste - Less waste to dispose there would be less pollution. Recycling would be helpful or buying products with less packaging.

Government action - Strict anti pollution laws.

Alternative energy sources - Fuels that do not produce waste would mean less pollution.

Alternative manufacturing methods - Scientists are reasearching methods to get rid of waste effectively.

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Natural resources

Natural resources - are provided by nature and can by used by humans. 
Conservation - protecting and preserving natural resources and the enviroment 


  • wind power
  • solar power
  • wave power
  • water power
  • fertile land
  • wood

Some of these need managing but will never run out so it is a good advantage. A disadvantage is that many of them are effective in certain places and can be very expensive than other resources.


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Natural resources

Non-renewable resources:

  • coal
  • oil
  • gas
  • minerals and rocks

Some non-renewable resources can be recycled to be used again.
Humans use non-renewable resources for:

  • Transport - vehicles run on petrol or diesel which come from oil 
  • Electricity - generated from non renewable resources
  • Buildings - things like glass, bricks and steel which make building are made from minerals
  • Products - a huge number of products are made from non renewable resources. EG. cosmetics, DVDS, medicenes and some foods.
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Natural resources

What happens when the resources run out?

  • If humans continue to used these resources they will run out. Oil reserves may run out within 50 years. It will have an impact on human lives. EXAMPLE - Most people get their food by agriculture, manufacturing, transport and the retail industries rely on non renewable resources.

What can we do?

  • Conservation means looking after the enviroment so that future generations can enjoy it. 
  • Not wasting electricity - not leaving lights, TV's, computers switched on
  • Walking, cycling or using public transport instead of driving a car
  • Buying and using products made from renewable resources
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Christian teachings and attitudes on stewardship&e

Creation - act of creating the universe or the universe which has been created
Environment - surrounding in which plants and animals live
Stewardship - looking ater something so it can be passed to the nect generation 


  • Stewardship - care for the enviroment and its resources
  • Responsibility - recognising that its up to peope to care for the natural world
  • Authority or Dominion - having the position of power over the natural world

 ''God blessed them and said be fruitful and multiply. Rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air and over every living thing that moves on the ground''

Which means that Christians believe that God has given humans the right to rule the Earth but they also have responsibility to care for God's creation. God asked mankind to ''till the Earth and keep it''

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Christian teachings and attitudes on stewardship a

Most Christians would argue that people should look after the Earth and conserve natural resources because 

  • They believe that after death they will be judged by God by their actions while they were living. This includes how they looked after the Earth.
  • The bible shows God's anger towards people who have ruined the enviroment ''I brought them into fertile land to eat fruit and produce. They came and made my land unclean, They made my property disgusting''
  • Jesus teaching on loving one another and helping people in need that Christians should share the resources of the world equally.
  • Christian stewardship  ''A good man leaves an inheritance for his childrens children''
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Christian teachings and attitudes on stewardship a

Most Christians would argue that people should look after the Earth and conserve natural resources because 

  • They believe that after death they will be judged by God by their actions while they were living. This includes how they looked after the Earth.
  • The bible shows God's anger towards people who have ruined the enviroment ''I brought them into fertile land to eat fruit and produce. They came and made my land unclean, They made my property disgusting''
  • Jesus teaching on loving one another and helping people in need that Christians should share the resources of the world equally.
  • Christian stewardship  ''A good man leaves an inheritance for his childrens children''
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Muslim teachings and attitudes on stewardship and

'It is he who has made you custdian, inheritors of the Earth''  - Humans were put in charge of God's creation

Muslims believe:

  • People should treat their gift from Allah with respect and look after it
  • Humans have been placed in a position of responsibility to care for the world in the way Allah wishes
  • Different pieces of the creation unity with each other and should be maintained for things to be working properly

''The sun and moon follow courses exactly computed and the herbs and the trees both alike bow in adoration. And the firmament he has raised high and he has set up the balancew in order that you may not trangress that balance''


  •  All members of the Ummah should share the Earth's resources which means looking after the environment for the future.
  • Animals are a part of Allah's creation and as khalifahs, humans should treat them with respect
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Muslim teachings and attitudes on stewardship and

  • On the day of judgement, Allah will judge everyone according to how they have behaved as 'stewards of the Earth''
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Muslim teachings and attitudes on stewardship and

What does this mean for the environment?
Ways which Muslims may put the teaching on the enviroment into practise 

  • to avoid greedy use of resources
  • not to damage, destroy or abuse the natural environment
  • to work towards the protection and conservation of forms of life
  • to try and distribute the Earth's resources
  • to support enviromental organizations
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Medical treatment for infertility

Artifical insemination - injecting semen into the uterous
Embryo - a fertilised egg in the first 8 weeks after conception
Infertility - not being able to have children
In-vitro fertilisation - method of fertilising a human egg in a test-tube
Surrogacy - a women bears a child on behlaf of another women

Different ways of medical treatments

  • AID - The sperm of a donor which is unknown is medically inseminated into the womens womb
  • AIH - Partners sperm is medically inseminated into the womens womb
  • Egg donation - Partners sperm is used to fertilise the egg of an unknown donor in a test tube before being placed in the womens womb
  • Embryo donation - Both sperm and egg are provided by unknown donors, fertilised in a test tube and placed in a womens womb
  • IVF - An egg is taken from the mother and fertilised in a test tube using sperm from a partner or donor and then placed in her womb to carry it full term
  • Surrogacy - Egg, sperm or both of the couple is fertilised in a test tube and then placed in a womb of another women who carries the baby full term.
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Medical treatment for infertility

Some problems...

  • Fertility treatments are expensive for couples themselves or the NHS
  • No guarantees that treatment will work many attempts may be needed
  • Fertility drugs can cause uncomfortable side effects
  • Places individuals their relationship under a number of strain
  • Having a baby through donor sperm or a donor egg can be difficult for the infertile partnner to come to terms with and may lead to problems with bonding with the baby.
  • Surrogacy - Hardest situation as it may be difficult for the surrogate to give up the baby she has carried for nine months and the couple may feel distant from the baby.
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Christian attitudes to medical treatment for infer


  • God intended the children should be created through a natural act of sex between a husband and wife.
  • Noone has the right to have children. God has a plan for everyone and they should respect that
  • Masturbation is a sin and all treatments where fertilisation takes place outside the womens body involves masturbation by the male. (ROMAN CATHOLICS)
  • Some Christians including Catholics oppose to IVF as it involves creation of several embryos. Embryos that are destroyed and experimented on is violating the sanctity of life. (CATHOLICS)
  • Many Christians would object to treatments which use donated sperm or eggs as it would be adultry
  • Most Christians do not agree with surrogacy because it involves a third person which can later cause complications
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Christian attitudes to medical treatment for infer


  • God has given humans the capacity to create children this way
  • It allows couples to experience the joy of having children
  • It is a way of loving your neighbor and follows the Golden Rule
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Muslim attitudes to medical treatment for infertil

Some types are allowed because

  • infertility is regarded as a disease so it is OK to find a cure
  • they view cildbirth and child-rearig as important family commitments
  • having children hels to keep the couples and family together
  • social status of Muslim women, her self esteem are related to here ability to have a child

IVF and AIH is permitted because

  • they use sperm and egg of the married couple
  • God has given people the ability the create life in this way
  • embryos that are destroyed are 14 days old and not classed has humans. Islam teaches the soul doesn't enter the foetus until 120 days
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Muslim attitudes to medical treatment for infertil

Most Muslims disagree with ay treatment that uses donor sperm or donor eggs because

  • this is seen as adultry or violating the contract of marriage
  • muslims believe that all children have the right to know their natural parents

Surrogacy is banned in Islam. It is seen as violating the marriage contract and the person who gives birth to the baby is seen as the mother.

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Transplant surgery

Organ donation - giving organs to be used in transplant surgery

Transplant surgery involves using body part from one person dead or alive to replace body parts in someone. It is an established and advanced form of treatment but raises some issues:

  • Expensive and limited form of treatment
  • Raises questions about when a person is dead
  • Should a person be kept alive or allowed to die purely for the purposes of organ donation
  • Donor organs are scarce and a black market has started in some countries


  • Organ donations make use of organs which would be wasted
  • Gives people and their loved ones the opportunity to help 
  • Offers tremendous relief and is a blessing to those who recieve surgery and to their loved ones
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Transplant surgery

A donor card is voluntary and indicates that the carrier of the card would like their organs to be used for transplantation after dieing.

Most donated organs come from dead donors which raises conflict. Loved ones may feel pressured to make quick decisions about donating organs of a dying person whenthey may not be even ready to accept that the patient is going to die.

In the UK organ donation is voluntary. In other countries people must opt out of organ donation otherwise healthy organs can be used and relatives can't change it.

You don't have to be dead to donate.(Liver, kidney and bone marrow). In the UK only genetically donations can be donated otherwise their difficult to monitor.

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Christian attitudes


  • It is a loving and charitable act which fulfills Jesus' teaching to love
  • Raises no problems for life after death since the body is not needed in heaven
  • People can show gratitude for God's gift of life
  • Protestant Churches teach that organ donayion is personal conscienceand everyone should make their own decison
  • Roman Catholic Churches say that it is a positive thing and encourages people to become organ donors.


  • Violates the sanctity of life and people should not play God.
  • Organs are essential parts of an individual that God created and it would be wrong to replace
  • Interfering with God's plans for each individual
  • If the person has abused their bodies bu drinking or smoking Christians may disagree replacing organs.
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Muslim attitudes


  • Quran teaches that the body should not be interfered with and should be buried soon as
  • On the Last Day the body will be resurrected and organs will be needed
  • Violates the sanctity of life - only Allah has the right to give and take away life


Believe people can live with on kidney and would not affect resurrection of body so organ donation can happen with close relatives 

Believe arguments against can be over ruled as Allah said 'Whoever saves the life of one person it would be as he saved the life of all mankind''

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Islamic authorities

Shari'ah Law says

  • The council supports organ transplantation as it means taking a persons pain away or saving a life
  • Muslims may carry donor cards
  • If they have no card,next of kin can give permission to donate organs to save lives
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Why do wars occur?

Aggression - attacking without being provoked
Exploitation - taking advantage of a weaker group

War is an armed conflict between two or more nations. Factors that cause nations to go to war:

  • Self defence - to defend your country if it is attacked
  • Economics or natural resources - water, land, oil
  • Fear
  • National pride
  • Fighting against aggression and injustice
  • Long standing racial or ethnic hatered
  • Protecting people from persecution and expoliation


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War in Darfur

Civil war
Sudanese army and Arab military against Non-arabs
2.5m people affected and have lost their homes and land.
Sudanese government accused of mass killings and violations of human rights


  • economic/environment
  • long standing ethnic hatred
  • national pride
  • remote location
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United nations and world peace

Conflict resolution - bringing a fight or struggle to peaceful conclusion
Reconcilation - bringing together people who were opposed to each other
United Nations - international body set up to promote world peace
World peace - ending of war throughout the whole world 

UN uses methods to achieve peace:

  • Arms control and disarmament
  • Peace talks
  • Trade restrictions
  • Peacekeeping forces 
  • Military action
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UN helping Darfur

Threat of sanctions
Peacekeeping forces

UN met with limited success in bringing peace to Darfur 

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Religious organisations

Forgiveness - stopping blaming someone and forgiving them for what they done wrong

Religious organisations campaign for world peace by:

  • encouraging reconciliation
  • educating both sides
  • teaching forgiveness
  • encoiraging non-violent protests
  • campaigning against oppressive governments
  • keeping people informed of inustices around the world
  • encouraging opposing sides to talk
  • speaking out against human right abuses
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Christian organisations 

World council of Churches - Brings together Christians to work for world peace by getting people in disputes to talk. Founded in 1948 to encourage Christians to teach about God.

Pax Christi - International Catholic organisation set up in 1945 to work for peace in the world.Pax Christi is opposed to war and violence and tries to get governments to settle disputes through discussion.

Islamic organisations

Islamic relief - Founded in 1984 and was set up to help victims of war.

Muslim Peace Fellowship - Works to promote world peace which was founded in 1994. It is aimed to work against injustice, reach out to people of all faiths with respect and work with everyone ro bring world peace

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Just war theory

Just war - A war that is fought for the right reasons and in a right way.

Thomas Aquinas developed the idea 

  • Reasonable likelihood of success
  • Fought to bring peace
  • Last resort and other non violent methods have been tried first
  • Civilians must not be targeted
  • Cause of war must be just such as resisting aggression
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Christian attitudes

Pacifism - belief that all disputes should be settled by peaceful methods

''Blessed are the pacemakers for they shall be called children of God''
''Do not resist an evil person. If someone strikes you on the right cheek turn to him on the other also''
''For those who draw a sword will die by the sword''
''Love your enemies, bless those who curse you'' 

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Christian attitudes

4 reasons why a Christian might choose pacifism

  • 10 commandments forbid killing ''You shall not commit murder''
  • Jesus taught people should love their enemies
  • Jesus stopped his own followers using violence
  • Nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction can cause unimaginable suffering on innocent people.

3 reasons why a Christian might agree to a just war

  • Jesus told his disciples ''if you don't have a sword sell you cloak and buy one''
  • Some say that they are situaiond where war is the lesser of two evild
  • Some claim armed forces can protect a nation from enemies
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Muslim attitudes


  • It must be authorised by a Muslim authority
  • Innocent civilians must not be hurt
  • Must be fought for a just cause, in defence of Islam, self defence or fighting injustice
  • Must be a last resort
  • Should restore peace and freedom
  • Must end when enemy surrenders
  • Must be fought with minimum amount of suffering

Under these rules Muslims should fight because:

  • Quran teaches Muslims must fight if they're attacked
  • Muhammed fought in wars
  • Most hadiths by Muhammed permit Muslims to fight
  • Quran teaches that anyone who dies in a just war will go straight to Heaven
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Muslim attitudes

However some believe that war is never right because:

  • Peace and reconciliation is at the heart of Islam
  • Innocent civillians will always be injured and killed
  • Non violent methods are the only way to achieve peace.
  • Violence leads to more violence. War increases hatred and disgust between both sides and never brings peace

Muslim Peace Fellowship - "Whatever act of violence has just taken place, we deplore it''

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Christian attitudes on bullying

Bullying - Intimidating/frightening people weaker than yourself
Respect - Treating a person or their feelings with consideration

What is bullying?
- Physical bullying and causing harm 
- Stealing or damaging others property
- Name calling
- Telling lies
- Accusing people of things they didn't do
- Racist bullying

Bullying can cause problems like eating disorders, self harming, sucidal thoughts/actions, depression etc.


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Christian attitudes on bullying

All Christians believe bullying is wrong because

  • Bullying involves physical or verbal violence which is against Christian teachings
  • Bullying can be mistreating God's creation
  • Jesus taught people to love one another and ''do to others what you would have them do to you''
  • Believe they should treat everyone with respect and protect the weak and vunerable as Jesus taught people to do
  • Old and new testments teach that taking revenge should be done by God not anyone else
  • After death people will be judged on the way they lived their lives and God will not be pleased if you were a bully
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Muslim attitudes to bullying

  • Islam teaches any type of violence r agression is wrong
  • Every individual has been created by Allah and its wrong to abuse God's creation
  • Islam teaches Muslims should work to put an end to bullying
  • Muhammed taught people to protect and help the weak and vunerable not attack
  • Muslims believe on the Last Day they will be judged on the way they lived their life
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Seeking help

Childline - A free, private 24 hour helpline for children and young people which offers help and support for helping a whole range of problems

Kidscape - Dr Michele Elliot and its aim is to teach children about personal saftey and how to deal with bullying.

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Religious conflict within families

Causes of family conflict?

  • Lack of progress at school
  • Parents splitting up or getting divorced
  • People trying to push their friends into doing something eg. drugs
  • Problems over money
  • Rivarly between brothers and sisters
  • Arguments over choice of friends
  • Moral issues like abortion, parents disappriving of their child having boyfriend or girlfriend

Christianity teaches children should honour their father and mother but parent are called not to ''provoke your children to anger''

Islam teaches no child should harm their parents and neither parents cause any harm to their child.

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Forgiveness and reconciliation

Christians should forgive and seek reconciliation because the Bible says:

''Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you''

''.. if you hold anything against anyone, forgive him so that your Father in heaven may forgive you your sins''

''How many tumes shall i forgive my brother when he sins against me seven times?'' Jesus replied..''Not seven times but seventy seven times''

''If anyone causes grief you ought to forgive and comfort him''

''Forgive us our sins for we also forgive everyone who sins against us''

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Forgiveness and reconciliation

Example of Jesus

Jesus died on the cross to bring forgiveness and reconciliation between God and humanity. he forgave his enemies ''Father forgive them as they do not know what they are doing''

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Forgiveness and reconciliation

Muslims believe conflicts should be resolved by forgiveness and reconciliation because

  • One of the 99 names of God is ''the Compassionate and Merciful''. Muslims believe that Allah forgives people and Muslims should forgive aswell
  • On the day of judgement God will show mercy and forgiveness to those themselves have shown the same to humans
  • Believe that they should follow the exapme and teaching of Muhammed who taught people to forgive.

''If a person forgives ad makes reconciliation his reward is due from God''

''Give justice to the person who was unfair and unjust to you''

''A kind word with forgiveness is better than charity followed by injury''

''Dont feel envy against each other''

''Live as brothers and sisters as Allah has commanded''

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Forgiveness and hajj

One important way Muslims follow the teaching is during hajj where thousands of Muslims climb Mount Mercy wearing Ihram to show equality and pray so God will forgive them for their sins.

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Theories of punishment

Deterrence - idea that punishments should put people off from committing the crimes again
Reform - idea that punishments should try change criminals so they will not commit crimes
Rehabilitation - to restore to normal life
Retribution - idea that punishments shoild make criminals pay for what they have done 


  • Deterrence doesn't work in the Uk as prisons are crammed with prisoners who commit crimes again.
  • Retribution doesn't work either because victimes often feel they dont feel the criminal has not been punished enough
  • In very serious cases such as murder retribution can never really achieved as the family of the victim with still be griving with their loss no matter how harshly punished
  • Reform is educating criminals not punishing them
  • Protection only works when their inside prison
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Christians and justice

Judgement - The act of judging people and their actions

Christians belive they should behave justly because

  • God is just God and people should behave in the same way
  • Bible teaches that God wants people to behave justly
  • Jesus taught everyone should be treated equally and fairly
  • Jesus taught ''.. do to others what you would have them do to you''
  • All Christian churches teach that Christians should behave justly
  • On Judgement Day, God will judge peoples behaviour on earth

''Do not judge and you will not be judged''

''Forgive and you will be forgiven''

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Christians working for justice

Christian Aid - works in area of poverty around the world helping those in need.

CAFOD - campaigns for justice for the poor and their mission is to promote socia justice within the world

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Muslims and justice

Muslims believe in the importance of justice because 

  • the Quran taches that God wants people to act in justice and fairness to each other
  • everyone is equal under Islamic LAw
  • justice is the basis of Zakah
  • Shariah law requires justice for everyone
  • Muhammed acted with justice
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Muslims working for justice

Muslim Aid - organisation that works to relieve poverty around the world

Islamic relief - seeks to imporve the lives of people affected of poverty, wars and natural disasters.

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Capital punishment

Capital punishment - death penalty for a crime or offence

Capital punishment means taking away the life of the prisoners. Some countries still have the death penalty but is banned in most places.


  • Death penalty acts as a warning and stops people committing the crime as they will know they will be killed
  • Value of human lifes is made clear by killing those who kill
  • It can make the criminal confess their crimes 
  • Death penalty means society can rid of itself from the dangerous people
  • Execution is compensation for taking lifes of another and helps the victims family
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Capital punishment


  • Number of murders does not drop in countries that have the death penalty
  • Many people that were executed who were later discovered to be inoocent
  • People elieve execution is nothing more than murder
  • Human life is important whatever a person has done and should not be taken away
  • Terroists who are executed can end up as heroes and encourages more terroism
  • Some people feel execution is an easier punishment than life imprisonment
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Christian attitudes

Christians believe that the death penalty is wrong because

  • It goes against the sanctity of life, only God has the right to take away life
  • Jesus came to save and eform people and executed criminal cannot be reformed
  • Jesus taught revenge was wrong ''If someone strikes your on the right cheek turn to him on the other''
  • Christian churches ave spoken out aainest it
  • Capital punishment is not compatible with the overall message of forgiveness and reconciliation


  • Old Testament teaches capital punishment should be used ''Whoever sheds blood of man by man shall his blood be shed''
  • New Testment, ST Paul teaches Christians should accept the laws and punishments of the government
  • Jesus never taught that death penalty was wrong
  • Catholic church uses death penalty for serious crimes
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Muslim attitudes

According to the Quran 

  • the death penalty can onyl be given after a fair trial and as a last resort
  • the victim has to agree to the sentence


  • Quran teaches death penalty can be given for serious crimes
  • Shariah law says the dath penalty can be given for certain crimes
  • Muhammed made statments that showed he agreed to the death penalty
  • Muhammed himself sentenced people to death for murder


  • Scholars of shariah law dont agree on application of death penalty
  • Quran says death penalty is a option it doesnt have to be used
  • Quran gives strict conditions under which the death penalty can be given
  • In some countries shariah law is not applied correctly
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Drugs and alcohol laws

Stimulants - affect the CNS which increases brain activity eg. cigs, cocaine

Depressants - slows down brain activity eg. alcohol and solvents

Hallucinogenics - changes your senses and give impressions that things are there when they are not eg. lSD, magic mushrooms and cannabis

Analgesics - painkilling drugs eg. asprin and paracetamol which is legal and heroin which is not

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UK alcohol laws

Children under 16  are not allowed in a pub or bar unless with an adult. Under 18's are not allowed to drink alcohol in a pub or bar. 

It is an offence to buy or try to buy alcohol for a child

Alcohol can be served upto 24 hours a day in licensed premises

It is illegal for anyone under 18 to buy or try to buy alcohol

Everywhere which sells alcohol must have a license granted by local authority

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Health and social problems

Addiction - a reccuring compulsion to engage in an activity regardless of its bad effects

  • violence
  • debt
  • crime
  • disorderly behaviour
  • homelessness
  • unemplyment
  • overdose
  • serious illness
  • family and relationship breakdown
  • mental illness
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Christian attitudes

Reasons for drinking in moderation

  • the bible does not forbid drinking of alcohol
  • jesus himself drank wine and turned water into wine at a wedding
  • during the last supper Jesus gave his disciples wine
  • St Paul told his friend to drink wine to help is disgestion
  • Many christian churches use wine for Holy Communions so its acceptable


  • drinking alcohol can impair a persons judgement
  • people drank wine because little else was to drink but now their are loads of other types of drinks available
  • in biblical times people drank wine and ale only today alcohol is much stronger and dangerous
  • Christians believe that drinking alcohol is so it is better not to drink it to avoid offending others
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