Why did the Tory party fall apart in 1829?
- The resignation of Lord Liverpool in March 1827 aged 57 having stroke caused problems, the only cabinet member to keep divided party together due to leadership skills and personality.
- Goderich was unable to form a cabinet and in desperation, the king asked Wellington to form a government. He fell out with the Liberal Tories.
- Liverpool's failure to establish a clear successor/to more to solve divisions made situation worse.
- The death of George IV, June 1830 caused a general election, they lost.
- Canning was tactless.
- Goderich is regarded as the worst Prime Minister of the century.
- Wellington was an army man who expected obedience.
- Parliamentary reform caused clashes in May 1828 between Huskisson and Wellington over the distribution of seats from corrupt boroughs.
- Wellington was not prepared to consider Parliamentary reform.
- The Corn laws: Liberal Tories wanted to relax them with a sliding scale but Wellington blocked it, but later introduced by him as PM.
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- Party bitterly divided, old disputes resurfaced once Liverpool had left.
- Peel and Wellington along with five others resigned when Canning was made Prime Minister as they disagreed with his foreign policy and the fact that he supported Catholic Emancipation.
1829: Catholic Emancipation.
- Wellington was reluctantly forced into agreeing to it.
- Daniel O'Connell, a Catholic, had won the bye-election for County Clare but as a Catholc was unable to take his seat in parliament. There was a fear that other catholics would do the same in the next election and then set up their own parliament, possibly leading to a break-up of the Union.
- Wellington bullied the House of Lords into passing the act. The protestant Tories never forgave him for this, they saw it as a 'great betrayal'. He lost the support of the Ultra-Tories, who undermined Canning & took revenge on Wellington after Catholic Emancipation.
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1831 Election: Why did the Tory party lose?
- They were out of time with the growing demand for reform.
- The impact if the 1830 revolution in France.
- Economic factors (slump hitting agriculture and industry, irregular employment, low wages, new machinery, income tax).
- Earl Grey's leadership.
- Divisions and policy differences within the Tory party.
Reasons for riots and violence 1830-1832.
- Swing riots due to poor harvests. (Widespread outbreak of burning of hayricks and barns, attacks on parsons and the smashing of mill machinery).
- Agrarian discontent mixed with political concerns.
- Middle classes wanted more political involvement.
- Working class discontent.
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Castlereagh & Canning
- Both agreed that intervention in a state's government was morally wrong.
- Both distrusted Russia and were keen to stop French involvement in Spain.
- Both wanted to preserve Turkish independence in Eastern question, to prevent Russian expansion.
- Both supported ending slave trade.
- Both believed in maintaining balance of power.
- Canning wasn't as enthusiastic as Castlereagh about Congress System.
- Canning saw the need to explain and defend views, Castlereagh didn't.
- Different context; Castlereagh dealt with aftermath of war and was used to co-operating with other nations to defeat Napoleon. Canning had no personal contacts and had more opportunist and independent approach
- Castlereagh & Metternich had good working relationship unlike Canning.
- Castlereagh was keen to keep peace with America. Canning was prepared to discredit America and had a less friendly relationship (Monroe Doctrine).
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