Pharmacological aids

Anabolic steroids

Illegal

Synthetic hormones that resemble testosterone to promote protein synthesis for muscle growth, recovery and repair 

Tablet, capsule, solution and cream form

Maximal and explosive strength-based performers eg. sprinters 

+= increased muscle mass and strength

Increased speed of recovery

Increased intensity and duration of training 

-= Irritibility, aggression and mood swings 

Liver damage and potential heart failure 

Acne and hormonal disturbances 

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Erythropoietin (EPO)

Illegal

Responsible for production of red blood cells 

RhEPO= synthetic product copying natural EPO- increases red blood cell production 

Endurance atheltes eg. marathon runners 

+= increased red blood cell and Hb count

Increased O2 transport and aerobic capacity 

Increased intensity and duration of performance before fatigue 

-= increased blood viscosity 

Decreased cardiac output 

Increased risk of blood clots and heart failure 

Decreased natural production of EPO

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Human growth hormone (HGH)

Illegal

Synthetic product copying natural growth hormone to increase protein synthesis for muscle growth, recovery and repair 

Maximal and explosive strength-based performers eg. power lifters 

+= increased muscle mass and strength 

Increased fat metabolism and decreased fat mass

Increased blood glucose levels 

Increased speed of recovery 

-= abnormal bone and muscle development 

Enlargememt of vital organs 

Increased risk of certain cancers and diabetes

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