HideShow resource information
  • Created by: charlotte
  • Created on: 28-04-14 15:26

Definition - Richard Perloff

'A symbolic process which communicators try to convince other people to change their attitudes or behaviours regarding an issue through the transmission of a message in an atmosphere of free choice'

1 of 15


'Coercion occurs when the influencing agent:

a) Delivers a threat of some consquences

b) Attempts to induce the individual to act contrary to her preferences

c) Deprives the individual of some measure of freedom or authority

2 of 15


'Manipulation is a persuasive technique that occurs when a communicator disguises his or her true goals, hoping to mislead the recipient by delivering an overt message that belies its true intent'

3 of 15

Decision Making Units

  • Gatekeeper - Dictates the flow on information
  • Initiator - Identifies the problem that needs to be overcome
  • Decider - Individual who makes the final decision
  • Buyer - Carries out the buying process including negotiating
  • User - Actually uses the service
  • Financier - Handles money
  • Influencers - Not directly responsible for the decision but has significant influence upon it
4 of 15


Positive encouragement leads to improvement performance

5 of 15


Nye, J

'Power means the ability to get the outcomes one wants'

'The ability to establish preferences tends to be associated with intangible assets such as an attractive personality, culture, political values and institutions, and policies which are seen as legitimate or having moral authority'

'Hard power can rest on inducements (carrots) or threats (sticks)'

6 of 15

Cialdini's Weapons of Influence

  • Reciprocity
  • Social proof
  • Rarity
  • Commitment and consistency
  • Liking
  • Authority
7 of 15

Persuasion and Self-Esteem

  • Low self-esteem = Easy to persuade
  • High self-esteem = Need to engage with relevant thinking and internalise message
  • Higher self-esteem = Avoid unwelcome messages
8 of 15

Fear Appeals

Threat component

  • Threat to well-being conveyed
  • Susceptibility to threat

Threat then evokes fear

  • Fear is an emotion
  • Fear generates a physical response

Coping component

  • How to avoid the threat
9 of 15

Factors Affecting Behavioural Change

  • People must believe they can make a change
  • If expect more from an audience then will fail
  • Must see, hear, understand and remember messages and undertake more actions before behaviour is likely to change
10 of 15

Perloff (2010) Qualities of Persuasive Speakers

  • Authority
    • Reward and punishment
  • Credibility
    • Expertise
    • Trustworthiness
    • Goodwill
  • Social Attractiveness
    • Likeability
    • Similarity
    • Physical appeal
11 of 15

Ancient Art of Persuasion

  • Aristotle said persuasion has three elements
    • Ethos - Appeal based on credibility of speaker
    • Logos - Appeal to reason
    • Pathos - Appeal to emotion
  • These three elements can be seen in the development of powerful messages in corporate communications
12 of 15

Role of Persuasion in PR

  • Considered key to PR
  • Grunig and Hunt (1984) - Do not include it in their model of symmetrical two-way communication
13 of 15

Qualities of an Influencer

  • Integrity - Builds relationships around trust
  • Nurturing - Cares about people
  • Faith - Believes in people
  • Listening - Values what others have to say
    • Open and purposeful questions - how, what, why
    • Reinforcement - Positive body language, empathy
    • Paraphrasing - summarise
    • Contradiction - Let them prove you wrong, avoid conflict
    • Disclosure - Tell enough to encourage
    • Avoid - Talking over other people, asking closed questions, competitive anecdotes
  • Understanding - Recognises others point of view
  • Enlarging - Helps others become bigger
  • Navigating - Helps others through difficulties
  • Connecting - Initiates positive relationships
  • Empowering - Power to lead
14 of 15

Audiences: Group Influencers

Some people look outward for clues (high self-esteem) at how to respond to messages whilst others look inward (low self-esteem).

15 of 15


No comments have yet been made

Similar Marketing resources:

See all Marketing resources »See all Public Relations resources »