Personality

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  • Created by: claud
  • Created on: 03-11-14 22:22

What is personality?

Personality is the sum total of an individual's characteristics which make him unique.

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Nature vs nurture

  • NATURE 
    • behaviour is a product of the genes of our parents so is genetically inherited
  • NURTURE
    • behaviour is learned through observation, imitation of behaviours and reinforcement and exposure to environments
  • INTERACTION
    • when nature and nurture are combined to produce behaviour
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Trait theory

  • a trait is a characteristic of personality
  • traits are stable, enduring and inherited
  • traits are instincts
  • behaviour is the function of personality

There are two Trait theories:

1. PERSONALITY TYPES Eysenck and Cattell

2. NARROW BAND THEORY Girdano

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Eysenck's personality types

  • EXTROVERT
    • sociable, outgoing, like being in group, aroused slowly, low sensitivity of RAS
  • INTROVERT
    • shy, reserved, prefer isolation, aroused quickly, high sensitivity of RAS
  • NEUROTIC
    • extreme and unpredictable emotions, unreliable mood swings, high stress, slow recovery from stress
  • STABLE
    • predictable emotions, predictable moods, low stress, recover from stress quickly
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Personality types contd.

RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM (RAS)

  • area of brain associated with arousal
  • introverts have higher sensitivity of RAS > more likely to become overaroused

4 PERSONALITY TYPES

  • neurotic and introverted
  • stable and introverted
  • stable and extroverted
  • neurotic and extroverted 

PSYCHOTICISM

  • a measure of how tough or tender minded people are
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Narrow band approach

Girdano - 2 personality types

TYPE A - ATHLETE

  • highly competitive
  • works at rapid pace
  • high levels of stress
  • desire to succeed
  • needs to be in control

TYPE B - NON ATHLETE

  • non competitive
  • unambitious
  • less prone to stress
  • works more slowly
  • doesn't enjoy control
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Social learning

  • behaviour is a reaction to a situation
  • we learn how to deal with situations by observing others

BANDURA:

  • observation
  • modelling
  • social reinforcement

CONDITIONS THAT SUPPORT SOCIAL LEARNING

  • observed behaviour of role model
  • a need to adopt norms of new culture
  • when role model holds power and authority
  • when the observer and role model are the same gender
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Interactionist theory

  • behaviour is the function of personality x environment
  • combination of trait theory and social learning theory
  • behaviour is determined by traits AND experiences
  • most realistic explanation
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Concentric rings theory

Hollander

  • rings represent structure of personality - layered
  • ring boundaries widen as you get closer to core > harder to break through

 surrounded by social environment

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Concentric rings theory contd.

PSYCHOLOGICAL CORE

  • real you
  • impossible for others to reach
  • permanent beliefs and values

TYPICAL RESPONSES

  • usual manner in which response is made
  • learned and stored
  • reflects nature of core

ROLE RELATED BEHAVIOUR

  • surface of personality
  • changeable
  • may not be typical / normal eg. one off actions, unlike normal personality (AGGRESSION)
  • determined by perception of environment
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Conclusions: Interactionist

  • behaviour is unpredictable
  • sports performers change in different situations
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