- The privy council-kings selected advisers who met in private to shape the monarchs whishes into policies and oversee their implementation.
- To enforce Cs will and that of the privy council 2 key perogative courts were brought in
- 1.Star Chamber-Privy counciler chosen by CI and was were C held key cases in secret in front of privy councillers- advantage-defendents could be questioned in private and fined, imprisoned or undergo corpral punishment. couldnt condem death though
- 2.The court of high commission was the cheif court of the church used by laud to enforce comfomity. if found guilty they were sent to SC to which he was also a member
The court of charles
- in a personal monarchy the court was the centre of power.
- COURT-The way in which charles ordered his court shows that he wanted to get things under control and he rearranged things his way. He had a controlling perosnality and imposed his will on others, The court also reflected his peronality as it was formal and reserved.
- COURTVS COUNTRY-The apparenmt issolation of the court under charles became a problem as it caused division between country and court-reindforced for example by his order to genrty to spend less time in LND and more time forfilling their duties in their regions. One member of the gentry called Parmer was fined £1,000 in SC for remianing in london without royal concent.
- RELIGIOON-Court also seemed to be dominated by catholics and anti clavanist like Luad.- a problem also becuase catholics were linked with absolutism as seen in SPN AND FRANCE- this was seen in the maqeres where C and henriette were seen to solve all the chaos of england themselves as well as kings art collection-expensive and absolitost
- isloation of court caused conspiracies to develop-outside court caths were thought to be in control whilst king belived Ps were infringing his progative. With the breakdown of court and country relations it was seen as court was becoming tinged by C. The puritan 'evidence' for this poposh plot was centered around religous policies in PR as well as the prom,inent possitions at court.
Attempts to secure financiel inderpendence
- in a personal rule the king no longer has parliment to grant subsidies
- was a real problem for charles.in 1629 he was in £2mill of debt
-savings-1.peace with France and Spain through the treaties of Susa and Madrid 2. Weston reformed the household, the costs of running Charles court
-war was the most significant cost but belived to be giving up palatinate and Europe, this financiel/spanish link continued when he used hgis ship money fleet to escot a spanish fleet in 37 for money.
Fiscal fuedelism to increase revenue- 1.collection of custom duties including tonnage and pundage which he contued to collecthe increased the amount crown got when he altered the book of rates making it more towards the market value-raised from £270,000 t0 424000 a year. 2.incresed collection of recusatcy fines-for thoose who avoided church-went from £5,300 to £425,000 3.distraint of knighthood-a fine on anyone holding land worth £40 or more and had not recieved a knighthood. forced and charles raised £174,000 from this. 4.monopolies. a loophole in the monoploies act allowed grants to coporations the most notorious was that on soap to a group of cathlics the opoish soad which earned him £33,000. 5.wardship the crown has the right to run any estate which the heir inherited under the age of adulthood. incresed by a third getting £75,000 a year.
Sherifs and JOP
The book of order
- After harvest faliure in 1629-30 copies of the BOO was sent to sheriffs and JOP and municipal authorities settig out the authority and duties of theese local officals, peticully helping the poor.
- It is however the one of 1631 thats more important-which was disigned to ensure that local goverment funtioned in turms of the gentry local responsiblilityes such as helping the poor and maintaining roads-basically it was thier to ensure sociel order was maintained.
- What was new about this BOO was that it was the procedue that it enforced-the JOP had meet once and mounth to supervise thoose who administered local goverment who oversaw the poor.
- some gentry would have resented the involvment from central goverment. it would also take up their time and money which caused further resentment
Milita-an army would need to be formed by a local militia, who were ill-trained ill-equiped bands of men aged 16-60 who would be no match for trained soldier from places like spain. -reform of the milita was theirfore nessesery but caused chostilities as it was derived from perogative and was considered to be central interference with local affairs. Their was also the problem that money for the reform had to be funded by the locality.
Attempts to secure financiel inderpendence 2
In 1628 charles appoined a commision for defectove titles to raise fines in three paticular areas
1.forest fines-fines for any land owner said to have enrouched on the areas of royal dforests. using dubious maors and documents he mandef to only raise £38,667 with the pollitical cost of alienating landowners 2.Lnad titles-thoose who rented land from the crown and couldnt probve a clear title to the land could be fined for the previous 60 years 3.Enclosure fines-thoose who had illegally enclosed, closed off common land.
by raising all theese fines he raised his income from £600,000 to £900,00 anual but he was still in lots of debt and theese attempts to raise finace were seen as an attempt to establish absolutism such as acedemic E.Dagger.
Ship money-was a tax that offered charles the best possible money and he levied it on both costal towns and countries (even though it was only relevent to coust towns)and it was said to have raised £200,000 anually. Until the year of 38 their was at least a collection rate of 90 % which is high. it was not unrtil 1640 tyhjat it collapsed it wasnt until hamddem that it did collapse before this their didnt appea\r to be any issue with it. It was also mayvbe a result of the lack of parliment no one could voice thier opinion. after the treaties made it was also questioned if it was nessesary to collect the tyax if their no war.
Attempt to reform church
Laud-demonstrated charles anti-clavaist and arminian. he was in charge of the church and was ati calvanist in his 1.anti-predestination and his 2.less emphasis on the bible and preaching and more on ceremonies and ritual. By C siding with luad much like monetgu he showed his armaniam and laudist ideas.
Mesures to laudism -the phase 'beuty of holiness' is indicative of what was most notible of the impact of laudian changes in th apperance of churches. This impact most the puritan churches which want a plain look. -comunion table moved and railed of as an atler in the east end of a church(most controversial)-increased emphasis on ceremny-decoration-music-remoival of gentrys ornamental pew-ministers wearing vestments. not only showing cath over prot but church over laity with the removel of the gentrys pew.
The introduction of the book of sports in 1618 and reissued 1633.
The idea of ‘thorough’
- Whigh interptitation of the personal rule and the 'eleven year tyranny'. Such interpritation somtimes saw the personal rule administration as thorough
- this was a term most commonly assosiated with wentworths rule in Irl. teh term related to the attempot tio uncrease royal authoirtuy through impositions of religiousconformity and the uise of prerogative courts. in Ireland its also related to making a profit out of country for the crown rather than incurring an expence and controlling the parliment in dublin.
- The term gives howeve the impression of too much coherace whereas the goverment was still genrally the normal ad hoc desision making process of previous rulers. Charles has general aims but the nature odd the early state meant there were limits to what he could achieve without the backing of the parlimentary classes inderpendent afinances and bureauracy.
Thomas Wentworth in Irland and England
Wentworth-charles didnt want certain members in his privy council such as W so he made him lord deputy of irland-dislacting him also physically from the PC
- Irland was politically divided into the following groups-Irish caths-catholic old englishj- prot new england and presperetrian scots.
- In irland wentworth aimed to -impose the authoirity of the english cron and church on the irish-allow the english crown to profit from irland [to help him with this] he chose some able assistants.
- An new book of rates was sucesful inrasing oincome from irland.
- Wentworths policies of playing each group of each other helped him to manipuate the irish parliment.
- Plantations-wentworth extended plantations into the old english counret and he led two peronal arrack on two leading figures amoung the new English. This wasnt a good move as it alienated people who supported the crown
- The proterstants in Irland also didnt like laudism and wanted more harsh anti cath regulations as they feared popery-led to cath rebbelion
Attempt to extend religious reofrm in scotland
- Charles aim to get unity wasnt like and he was regarded as their 'absent ruler'-The act of Revocation took land from scotish nobels in order to strengthern church. Attakc on thier heritage not only the unity but takinga way the heritage of nobels. The plan failed but showed the lack of power the vcrown had in scotland.
- It had taken him 8 years to come toscotland which demonstrtates how thier importance had declined so mucch since James. The ceremony was regarded as catholic and he intoduced a new bishopric into edinburough and the raising of st giles to a cathedral also caused alot of issues as it ws consiodered as catholic.
- He also intorduced the idea of a new prayer book and in preperation for this he imposed new canons in 1636, along with the articles of perth he was seen to be making the presepterian church catholic. Things were made worse that they were imposed by his perog and charles made no effort to allow the general assembly ofthe kirk or the scottish parliment to have any say in the cannons.
- In 1637 the book was introoduced by C into scotland. This antagonised them furthewr. This was a turning point in charles rein.
- C was the cause of the S revolution. His imposition of uniformit on the churhc especially alienated the Scots against the bishops for, as a pres nation had regarded bishops with suspicsion. To add more tension theese bishop inforced ythe Laudien prayer book imposed by C.
- C cut himself of from 8influentiel scots and choose to ignore the growing diosconcent. This was clear in 1634 when many lords petetioned against Cs religious innovation. Charles rejected this. Blalamerio was accued of treason when he rebelled. Tyrannical and je was mot only the vbictim of charles Leighton was fined for critising henriette. He had an ear chopped off his nose slit and face branded againt casuing massive outrage.
- His introduction of a new prayer book was the main turning point. It caused full blown riot. Again the protest in Glasgow was a warning of the opposition.Again a riot in Edinburough broke out.
- The links between scots and english opp showed charles opposition-as they knew that if the scots went to war C would call parliment
- It took a long time for C to get his army together and in that time the scots were prepared-chalres with a lack of subsides had to get taxes based purly on his perogative and this added to the further opposition of the laudism in church.
Attempt to extend religious reofrm in scotland 2
- The extent of charles problems were seen as he brought wentworth back and he told c to hold a parliment. However he refused to cooporate with P and imediatly dissolved it.
- cs effort to raise an army were poor. Their were only minor encounter between the armies but within 10 days they had occupied Newcastke. In 1640 the treaty of ripon was a humiliating defeat and meant charles agreed to pay £850 a day for scot army,. He had to call a parliment
- They had humiuliated Cs and had show that he is weak along with the rebelion of hamden ect it appeared that cs rein was crumbling and this meant that the popish plot was crumbling. Charles had a weak army and wasnt feared. Although he took part in painful punishment he still wansnt feared.
Hampden and opposition to financiel levies (espesh
- A clkearer stance against fiscal feudism came in 1634 when the earl of warick challenge forest fines. Warick was powerful enough to take legal action against his stance.
- Ship money-most people did pay it (90%) however their began to be some opposition
- William Fiennes, 1st Viscount Saye and Sele- was a proterstant peer involved in North American and caribbean colonisation plans. Part of the Providence Island Compant which was the centre of opposition to charles and laud.
- Both Saye and Brooke refused to take the military oath of loyalty to support Charles against the scots.Both were improsoned for 4 days and sent to their country estates.
- John Hampden- a member of the Buckinghamshire gentry. Hamden refused to pay the forced load in 1626 and was breifly imprisioned. He also refused to pay some ship money. His trial made him a leading figure He was one of the 5 birds. Although court won the trial H won the moral vicotry. Made it more difficult to collect ship money-also caused wider issues.
- Hamdens case and scottish rebellion both showed the crubeling of court.
- Following the scotish rebeliioon and that of Hamden the collection rate of Ship money dropped to 20%
Pynne, Bastwick and Burton and opposition to rel c
- Before Hampdens casr their had already been ther signs of opposiion to the personal rule, most motably to the relgious changes imposed.
- St Gregs-One of the first open signs of opposition to the relgious changes imposed by charles 1 came in 1633.Parishioners of the St Gregory church in London were brought before trhe Prvy council by C1as they had protested against the anti prot movment of comunion table in st gregs church.
- for Ps ceremonies were a mark of cathism. In 1637 J Bastwick was rough before the SC for his criticism with 2 other puritans Burton and Pynne. They were believed to have attacked Henrieeta.
- in 1637 they were all publicaly mutilated for their critism of lauds inovation and they were also fined £5,000 each and imprisioned for life, however the faul treatment earnt them sympathy and the fact that they were honest working men.
- They were honest normal men who didnt agree with the cathodisism which Cs was inflicting on his people- they were punished for this and this showed the absolutism and threat to proterstantism that charles was causing
Crisis of 1637 and reassons for opposition
- 1637 was the turning point in Cs rein. Hamdens case, the trill of P,B AND B all happened against the backdrop of the Scottish rebbelion.
- It is clear that theese rebbelions are a cause of Cs implimentation of laudism. Varied from moderate opposition such as panthlets to open rebbelion.
- long term issues with charles rein within the gentry were seen in the publoication fo the daires of some of the kent gentry.
- The emigration to new england showed the puritans concerns. They were networks of opposition showed digus tof charles. Laud even satoped one of the ships from leaving.