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  • Created by: spud99
  • Created on: 03-04-15 14:26


20th century expressionism 

Schoenberg 1874-1951 Austria

Composed 1909

Five Orchestral Pieces, OPUS 16 abandoned tonality, written before 12-tone method

Not on printed scores until 13 years after composition

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Large orchestra at least 90 players

Intrumentation changes rapidly throughout 

Contrasts in timbre 

Extremes of instrument's range used

Unusual effects used e.g cymbal played with cello bow

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Structure, rhythm + dynamics

Free rondo form in five sections

'ABACA' not clearly contrasted

Complex and varied change quickly

Layered different rhythms layered on top of each other

Sudden changes of dynamics extreme contrasts e.g ppp to fff

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Melody, metre + tempo

Short fragmented motifs combined

Disjunct + angular

Octave displacement individual notes to different octaves

Augmentation + diminution used to vary motifs

Metre 3/4, 2/4, 4/4 changes between all three

Sehr Rasch very quick tempo

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Hexachords chords and melodies built off of them

Opening woodwind fanfare:

note name     C♯           D             E              F              G♯             A

interval                1/2            1             1/2          1 1/2          1/2

Horns in bar 8 (transposed)

note name     A            B♭          C              C♯              E                   F

interval                1/2           1            1/2           1 1/2             1/2 

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Texture and tonality

Contrapuntal for most of piece

Monophonic for occasional moments in piece

Homophonic for occasional moments in piece

Complex textures are built up

Atonal tonality has no key

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Performance markings

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