Periodic table 2

Periodic table of elements

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  • Created by: Kim Hicks
  • Created on: 12-06-10 12:16

Hydrogen (1)

General

  • Name: Hydrogen
  • Symbol: H
  • Type: Non-metal
  • Atomic weight: 1.0
  • Density @ 293 K: 0.0000899 g/cm^3
  • Atomic Volume: 14.4cm^3/mol

Discovered:

  • In the first half of the 1500s.
  • Theophrastus Paracelsus, a physician, disscovered iron in sulfuric acid and oberserved the release of a gas.
  • Turgquet De Mayerne repleated Paracelsus's experiment and found that gas was flammable.
  • Neither new that this was an element.
  • In 1960 Rpbert Boyle added iron to sulfuric acid. Gas resulted in only burning if air was present and that a fraction of oxygen was consumed by burning.
  • Recognised as an element by Henry Cavendish in 1766, when he reacted hydrochloric acid with zinc.
  • Lavoisier later named the element hyroden in 1783.
  • The names comes from Greek 'hydro' meaning water and 'genes' meaning forming hydrogen is once of the two water forming elements.
  • Well-established as an element in 1806.
  • Humphry Davy pushed a stron electric current through pure water. Hydrogen and oxygen was formed.

States

  • State: Gas
  • Melting point: 14.01 K (-259.14 degrees C)
  • Boiling point: 20.28 K (-252.87 degrees C)

Energies

  • Specific heat capacity: 14.304 J g^-1 K^-1
  • Heat of atomization: 218 KJ mol^-1
  • Heat of fusion: 0.117 KJ mol^-1 of H2
  • Heat of vaporization: 0.904 KJ mol^-1 of H2
  • 1st ionization energy: 1312 KJ mol^-1
  • 2nd ionization energy: KJ mol^-1
  • 3rd ionization energy: KJ mol^-1
  • Electron affinity: 72.7711 KJ mol^-1

Oxidation & Electrons

  • Shells: 1
  • Electron configuration: 1s^1
  • Minimum oxidation number: -1
  • Maximum oxidation number: 1
  • Min. common oxidation no.: -1
  • Max. common oxidation no.: 1
  • Electronegavitiy (Pauling scale): 2.18
  • Polarizability volume: 0.7 A^3

Apperance & Characteristics

  • Structure: Hexagonal close packed
  • Colour: Colourless
  • Hardness: mohs
  • Harmful effects
    • Highly flammable
    • Almost invisable flame
  • Characteristics
    • Simpilest element
    • Lightest element
    • 90% of universal atoms are hydrogen
    • One proton, One electron and no neutrons.
      • Only element that can exists with no neutrons.
    • Odourless and standard temp and pressure.
    • Burns and forms explosive mixtures.
    • Little free hydrogen on earth

Reactions

  • Reaction with aire: vigarous, H2O
  • Reaction with 6 M HCl: none
  • Reaction with 15 M HNO3: none
  • Reaction with 6 M NaOH: none

Compounds

  • Oxide(s): H2O)
  • Chloride(s): HCl
  • Hydride(s): H2
  • 

Radius

  • Atomic radius: 25 pm
  • Ionic radius (1 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (2 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (3 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (2 - ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (1 - ion): pm

Conductivity

  • Thermal conductivity: 0.1805 W m^-1 K^-1
  • Electrical conductivity: S cm^-1

Abundance & Isotopes

  • Abundance Earth's crust
    • 0.14% by weight
    • 2.9% by moles
  • Abundance Solar system
    • 75% by weight
    • 93% by moles
  • Isotopes
    • Has 3 isotopes
      • ^1H (protium)
      • ^2H (deuterium)
      • ^3H (tritium)
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Helium (2)

General

  • Name: Helium
  • Symbol He
  • Type: Nobel gas
  • Atomic weight: 4.0
  • Density @ 293 K: 0.0001787 g/cm^3
  • Atomic volume: 27.2 cm^3/mol

Discovered

  • By Pierre Janssen in 1868 during a solar eclipse when he deteced a yellow line in the solar spectrum signiture
  • Norman Lockyer and Edward Frankland later confirmed his observations
  • Comes from the greek word 'helios' meaning sun
  • William Ramsay was the first to isolate helium on Earth in 1895

States

  • State: Gas
  • Melting point: 0.95 K (-272.2 degrees C)
  • Boiling point: 4.2 K (-268.9 degrees C)

Energies

  • Specific heat capacity: 5.193 J g^-1 K^-1
  • Heat of atomization: 0 kJ mol^-1
  • Heat of fusion: 0.0138 kJ mol^-1
  • Heat of vaporization: 0.0845 kJ mol^-1
  • 1st ionization energy: 2372.2 kJ mol^-1
  • 2nd ionization energy: 5250.3 kJ mol^-1
  • 3rd ionization energy: kJ mol^-1
  • Electron affinity: 0 kJ mol^-1

Oxidation & Electrons

  • Shells: 3
  • Electron configuration: 1s^2
  • Minimum oxidation number: 0
  • Maximum oxidation number: 0
  • Min. common oxidation no: 0
  • Max. common oxidation no.: 0
  • Electonegativity (Pauling sclae): 0
  • Polarizability volume: 0.198 A^3

Apperance & Characteristics

  • Structure: hexagonal close packed
  • Colour: colourless
  • Hardness: mohs
  • Harmful effects: non-toxic
  • Characteristics
    • light
    • odourless
    • does not solidify
    • the voice of somone who has inhaled the gas temporarily sounds high-pitched

Reactions

  • Reaction with air: none
  • Reaction with 6 M HCl: none
  • Reaction with 3 M HNO3: none
  • Reaction with 6 M NaOH: none

Compounds

  • Oxide(s): none
  • Chloride(s): none
  • Hydride(s): none

Radius

  • Atomic radius: 31 pm
  • Ionic radius (1 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (2 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (3 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (2 - ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (1 - ion): pm

Conductivity

  • Thermal conductivity: 0.15 W m^-1 K^-1
  • Electrical conductivity: S cm^-1

Abundance & Isotopes

  • Abundance earth's crust
    • 8 parts per billion by weight
    • 43 parts per billion by moles
  • Abundance solar system
    • 23% by weight
    • 7.4% by moles
  • Isotopes
    • Has 8 whose half lives are know with mass numbers 3-10.
    • 2 are stable
      • ^3He
      • ^4He
        • Over 99.999% of naturally occuring helium is in the form of ^4He
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Lithium (3)

General

  • Name: Lithium
  • Symbol: Li
  • Type: Alkali metal
  • Atomic weight: 6.9
  • Density @ 293 K: 0.53 g/cm^3
  • Atomic volume: 13.10 cm^3/mol

Discovered:

  • By Johan A. Arfvedson in 1817, during an analysis of petalite.
  • He described a substance that had unique proporties and which required more acid to newutrilze it than a sodium salt would have.
  • The pure metal was isolated the following year by both William T. Brnakde and Humphrey Davy working independantly.
    • Had a red flame colour like Strontium.
    • Produced an alkali solution when dissolved in water.#
  • Robert Bunsen and Augustus Matthieseen was independantly producing the meital in large quantities by 1855.
  • The name is derved from the Greek word 'lithos' menaing stone.

States

  • State: Solid
  • Melting point: 453.63 K (108.54 degress C)
  • Boiling point: 1615 K (1347 degress C)

Energies

  • Specific heat capacity: 3.58 J g^-1 K^-1
  • Heat of atomization: 159 KJ mol^-1
  • Heat of fusion: 3.00 KJ mol^-1
  • Heat of vaporization: 147.1 KJ mol^-1
  • 1st ionization energy: 520.2 KJ mol^-1
  • 2nd ionization energy: 7298.1 KJ mol^-1
  • 3rd ionization energy: 11815.0 KJ mol^-1
  • Electron affinity: 59.63 KJ mol^-1

Oxidation & Electrons

  • Shells: 2, 1
  • Electron configuration: [He] 2s^1
  • Minimum oxidation number: -1
  • Maximum oxidation number: 1
  • Min. common oxidation no.: 0
  • Max. common oxidation no.: 1
  • Electonegavitiy (Pauling Scale): 0.98
  • Polarizability volume: 24.3 A^3

Apperance & Characteristics

  • Structure: Body-centered cubic (BCC)
  • Colour: Silvery
  • Hardness: 0.6 mohs
  • Harmful effects
    • Corrosive
    • Can cause birth deffects
  • Characteristics
    • Soft and silvery white
    • least dense of the metails
    • Highly reactive and does no occur freely in nature
    • Freshly cut surfaces reacts with oxygen and forms a black oxide coating
    • Has a crimson flame and can become brillaint white

Reactions

  • Reaction with air: vigorous, = Li2O
  • Reaction with 6 M HCl: vigorous, = H2 LiCl
  • Reaction with 15 M HMNO2: vigorous, = LiNO3
  • Reaction with 6 M NaOH: mild, = H2 LiOH

Compounds

  • Oxide(s) Li2O
  • Chloride(s): LiCl
  • Hydride(s): LiH

Radius

  • Atomic radius: 145 pm
  • Ionic radius (1 + ion): 90 pm
  • Ionic radius (2 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (3 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (2 - ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (1 - ion): pm

Conductivity

  • Thermal conductivity: 84.8 W m^-1 K^-1
  • Electrical conductivity: 117 x 10^6

Abundance & Isotopes

  • Abundance earth's crust
    • 20 parts per million by weight
    • 60 parts per million by moles
  • Abundance solar system
    • 60 parts per trillion by weight
    • 10 parts per trillion by moles
  • Isotopes
    • Has 7 whos half lives are know, with mass numbers 5-11
      • Two are stables
        • ^6Li
        • ^7Li
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Beryllium (4)

  • General
  • Name: Beryllium
  • Symbol: Be
  • Type: Alkali earth metal
  • Atomic weight: 9.01
  • Density @ 293 K: 1.848 g/cm^3
  • Atomic volume: 4.9 am^3/mol

Discovered

  • By Louis-Nicholas Vauquelin in 1798
  • In emeralds and the mineral Bery
  • First isolated by Friederich Wohler in 1828

States

  • State: Solid
  • Melting point: 1551.2 K (1278 degrees C)
  • Boiling point: 2742 K (2469 degrees C)

Energies

  • Specific heat capacity: 1.82 J g^-1 K^-1
  • Heat of atomization: 324 kJ mol^-1
  • Heat of fusion: 7.895 kJ mol^-1
  • Heat of vaporization: 297 kJ mol^-1
  • 1st ionization energy: 899.5 kJ mol^-1
  • 2nd ionization energy: 1757.1 kJ mol^-1
  • 3rd ionization energy: 14848.7 kJ mol^-1 Electron affinity: 0 kJ mol^-1

Oxidation & Electrons

  • Shells: 2, 2
  • Electron configuration: [He] 2d^2
  • Minimum oxidation number: 0
  • Maximum oxidation number:2
  • Min. common oxidation no.: 0
  • Max. common oxidation no.: 2
  • Electronegativity (Pauling scale): 1.57
  • Polarizability volume: 5.6 A^3

Apperance & Characteristics

  • Structure: hexagonal close packed
  • Colour: steel grey
  • Hardness: 5.5 mohs
  • Harmful effects
    • toxic
    • carcinogenic
  • Characteristics
    • Forms a thin layer of hard oxide to protect it from water or air.
    • non magnetic

Reactions

  • Reaction with air: vigorous, w/ht = Be3N2
  • Reaction with 6 M HCl: mild = H2
  • Reaction with 15 M HNO3: none
  • Reaction with 6M NaOH: mild = H2, ]Be(OH)4]^2

Compounds

  • Oxide(s): BeO3
  • Chloride(s): BeCl2
  • Hydride(s): BeH2

Radius

  • Atomic radius: 112 pm
  • Ionic radius (1 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (2 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (3 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (2 - ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (1 - ion): pm

Conductivity

  • Thermal conductivity: 200 W m^-1 K^-1
  • Electrical conductivity: 0.25 x 10^6 S cm^-1

Abundance & Isotopes

  • Abundance earth's crust
    • 2.8 parts per million by weight
    • 4.6 parts per million by moles
  • Abundance solar system
    • parts per billion by weight
    • parts per billion by moles
  • Isotopes
    • Has 9 with known half lives
    • 1 stable
      • ^9Be
      • ^10Be (half life 1.51 million years)
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Boron (5)

General

  • Name: Boron
  • Symbol: B
  • Type: Metalloid
  • Atomic weight: 10.81
  • Density @ 293 K: 2.34 g/cm^3
  • Atomic volume: 4.6 cm^3/mol

Discovered

  • Comes from the Arabic word 'buraq' meaning white
  • First isolated by Joseph L. Gay-Lussac a french chemist and L. J Thenard in 1808.
  • Also isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in London in dependantly during 1808 aswell.
  • Neither party have produced pure boron.
    • Only reaching 60% pure.
  • William Weintraub produced 99% pure boron in 1909.
  • Jiuhua Chen and Vladimir L. Solozhenko produced a new form of boron in 2004.
  • A team led by Artem Oganov was able to demonstrate the new form in 2009

States

  • State: Solid
  • Melting point: 2348 K (2075 degrees C)
  • Boiling point: 4000 K (3727 degrees C)

Energies

  • Specific heat capacity: 1.02 J g^-1 K^-1
  • Heat of atomization: 563 kJ mol^-1
  • Heat of fusion: 50.2 kJ mol^-1
  • Heat of vaporization: 480 kJ mol^-1
  • 1st ionization energy: 800.6 kJ mol^-1
  • 2nd ionization energy: 2427.1 kJ mol^-1
  • 3rd ionization energy: 3659.7 kJ mol^-1
  • Electron affinity: 26.7 kJ mol^-1

Oxidation & Electrons

  • Shells: 2, 3
  • Electron configuration: [He] 2s^2 2p^1
  • Minimum oxidation number: 0
  • Maximum oxidation number: 3
  • Min. common oxidation no.: 0
  • Max. common oxidation no.: 3
  • Electronegatitivity (Pauling scale): 2.04
  • Polarizability: 3 A^3

Apperance & Characteristics

  • Structure: Rhombohedral
  • Colour: Black
  • Hardness: 9.3 mohs
  • Harmful effects: Non-toxic
  • Characteristics
    • exists in many polymorphs
    • extremely hard
    • forms stable covalent bonds
    • can transmit portions of infrared light

Reactions

  • Reaction with air: mild, w/ht = B2O3
  • Reaction with ^ M HCl: none
  • Reaction with 15 M HNO3: none
  • Reaction with 6 M MaOH: none

Compounds

  • Oxide(s): B2O3
  • Chloirde(s): BxCly
  • Hydride(s): B2H6 and many BxHy

Radius

  • Atomic radius: 85 pm
  • Ionic radius (1 +ion): p,
  • Ionic radius (2 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (3 + ion): 41 pm
  • Ionic radius (2 - ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (1 - ion): pm

Condictvitiy

  • Thermal conductivity: 27.4 W m^-1 K^-1
  • Electrical conductivity: 5.0 x 10^-4 S cm^-1

Abundance & Isotopes

  • Abundance earth's crust
    • 10 parts per million by weight
    • 1 part per million by moles
  • Abundance solar system
    • 2 parts per billion by weight
    • 0.2 parts per billion by moles
  • Isotopes
    • Has 11 whose half lives are known with mass numbers 7-17
    • 2 are stable
      • ^10B
      • ^11B
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Carbon (6)

General

  • Name: Carbon
  • Symbol: C
  • Type: non-metla, carbon group
  • Atomic weight: 12.011
  • Density @ 293 K
    • Graphite: 2.267 g/cm^3
    • Diamond: 3.513 g/cm^3
  • Atomic volume
    • Graphite: 5.31 cm^3/mol
    • Diamond: 3.42 cm^3/mol

Discovered

  • comes from the latin word ' carbo' meaning charcoal.
  • Antoine Lavoisier names carbon and he carries out early experiments in 1694.
  • Carl Scheele showed that graphite burnt from carbon dioxide in 1779.
  • Smithson Tennant discovered that diamond was pur carbon in 1796.
  • Benjamin Broadie produced pure graphite from carbon in 1855.
  • Francis Bundy and coworkers showed that graphite could be changed to diamond in 1955.
  • Robert Curl, Harry Kroto and Richard Smalley discovered fullernes in 1985.

States

  • State: soild
  • Melting point: 3823 K (3550 degrees C)
  • Boiling point: 4300 K (4027 degrees C)

Energies

  • Specific heat capacity
    • Graphite: 0.71 J g^-1 K^-1
    • Diamond: 0.591 J g^-1 K^-1
  • Heat of atomization: 717 kJ mol^-1
  • Heat of fusion: 117 kJ mol^-1
  • Heat of vaporization: 710.9 kJ mol^-1
  • 1st ionization energy: 1086.5 kJ mol^-1
  • 2nd ionization energy: 2352.6 kJ mol^-1
  • 3rd ionization energy: 4620.5 kJ mol^-1
  • Electron affinity: 121.55 kJ mol^-1

Oxidation & Electrons

  • Shells: 2, 4
  • Electron configuration: [He] 2s^2 2p^2
  • Minimum oxidation number: -4
  • Maximum oxidation number: 4
  • Min. common oxidation no.: -4
  • Max. common oxidation no.: 4
  • Electronegativity (Pauling scale): 2.55
  • Polarizability volume: 1.8 A^3

Apperance & Characteristics

  • Structure
    • Graphite: hexagonal layers
    • Diamond: tetrahedral
  • Colour
    • Graphite: black
    • Diamond: transparent
  • Hardness
    • Graphite: 0.5 mohs
    • Diamond: 10.0 mohs
  • Harmfull effects
    • low toxidity
    • inhalation can cause irritation and damage to lungs
  • Characteristics
    • exists in several allotopes including:
      • graphite
      • diamond
      • amorphous carbon
      • fullerines
      • nanotubes

Reactions

  • Reaction wih air: vigorous = CO2
  • Reaction with 6 M HCl: none
  • Reaction with 15 M HNO3: mild, w/ht = C6(CO2H)6
  • Reaction with 6 M NaOH: none

Compounds

  • Oxide(s): CO, CO2
  • Chloride(s): CCl4
  • Hydride(s): CH4 and many CxHy

Radius

  • Atomic radius: 70 pm
  • Ionic radius (1 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (2 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (3 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (2 - ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (1 - ion): pm

Conductivity

  • Thermal conductivity
    • Graphite: 25-470 W m^-1 K^-1
    • Diamond: 470W m^-1 K^-1
  • Electrical conductivity: 0.07 x 10^6 S cm^-1

Abundance & Isotopes

  • Abundance earth's crust
    • 200 parts per million by weight
    • 344 parts per million by moles
  • Abundance solar system
    • 3,000 parts per million by weight
    • 300 parts per million by moles
  • Isotopes
    • Has 13 whose half lives are known with numbers 8-20
    • 2 are stable
      • ^12C
      • ^13C
    • Isotope ^14C with a half life of 5730 years
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Nitrogen (7)

General

  • Name: Nitrogen
  • Symbol: N
  • Type: non-metal
  • Atomic weight: 14.0
  • Density @ 293 K: 0.001 g/cm^3
  • Atomic volume: 17.3 cm^3/mol

Discovered

  • John Mayow an English physican demonstrated that air is not a single element in 1674.
  • Joseph Black a Scottish chemist carried out my detailed work on air almost a centry later.
  • Daniel Rutherford built on Black's work and in a series of step removed oxygen and carbon dioxide from air.
    • Released his discoveries in 1772.
  • Carl Scheele a Swedish pharmasist discovered nitrogen independantly calling it spent air.
    • He apparently began his experiements in 1772.
    • He published his findings in 1777.

States

  • State: gas
  • Melting point: 63.05 K (-210.1 degrees C)
  • Boiling point: 77.4 K (-195.8 degrees C)

Energies

  • Specific heat capacity: 1.04 J g^-1 K^-1
  • Heat of atomization: 473 kJ mol^-1
  • Heat of fusion: 0.720 kJ mol^-1
  • Heat of vaporization: 5.57 kJ mol^-1 of N2
  • 1st ionization energy: 1402.3 kJ mol^-1
  • 2nd ionization energy: 2856 kJ mol^-1
  • 3rd ionization energy: 4578 kJ mol^-1
  • Electron affinity: -6.75 kJ mol^-1

Oxidation & Electrons

  • Shells: 2, 5
  • Electron configuration: [He] 2s^2 2p^3
  • Minimum oxidation number: -3
  • Maximum oxidation number: 5
  • Min. common oxidation no.: -3
  • Max. common oxidation no.: 5
  • Electrongativity (Pauling scale): 3.04
  • Polarizability volume: 1.1 A^3

Apperance & Characteristics

  • Structure: hexagonal close packed (HCP)
  • Colour: colourless
  • Hardness: mohs
  • Harmful effects
    • non toxic under normal conditions.
    • direct skin contact with liquid nitrogen can cause severe frostbite.
    • decompression in divers or astronaughts can cause the 'bends'.
  • Characteristics
    • odorless
    • lastless
    • diatomic

Reactions

  • Reaction with air: none
  • Reaction with 6 M HCl: none
  • Reaction with 15 M HNO3: none
  • Reaction with 6 M NaOH: none

Compounds

  • Oxide(s)
    • N2O
    • NO
    • NO2
    • N2O5
  • Chloride(s): NCl3
  • Hydride(s)
    • Ammonia - NH3
    • Hydrazine - N2H4
    • Hydrazoic acid - HN3

Radius

  • Atomic radius: 65 pm
  • Ionic radius (1 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (2 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (3 + ion): 30 pm
  • Ionic radius (2 - ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (1 - ion): pm

Conductivity

  • Thermanl conductivity: 0.02 W m^-1 K^-1
  • Electrical conductivity: S cm^-1

Abundance & Isotopes

  • Abundance earth's crust
    • 19 parts per million by weight
    • 28 parts per million by moles
  • Abundance solar system
    • 1,000 parts per million by weight
    • 90 parts per million by moles
  • Isotopes
    • Has 12 whose half lifes are known with mass numbers 11-19.
    • 2 are stable
      • ^14N
      • ^15N
    • Most common is ^14N (99.634%)
7 of 13

Oxygen (8)

General

  • Name: Oxygen
  • Symbol: O
  • Type: Non-metal
  • Atomic weight: 15.9
  • Density @ 293 K: 0.001 g/cm^3
  • Atomic volume: 14.0 cm^3/mol

Discovered

  • In 1774 by Joseph Priestley in England.
  • Comes from the Greek word 'oxys' meaning acid and 'genes' meaning forming.

States

  • State: Gas
  • Melting point: 58.4 K (-218.3 degrees C)
  • Boiling point: 90.2 K (-182.9 degrees C)

Energies

  • Specific heat capacity: 0.918 J g^-1 K^-1
  • Heat of atomization: 249 kJ mol^-1
  • Heat of fusion: 0.444 kJ mol^-1
  • Heat oof vaporization: 6.82 kJ mol^-1
  • 1st ionization energy: 1313.9 kJ mol^-1
  • 2nd ionization energy: 3388.2 kJ mol^-1
  • 3rd ionization energy: 5300.3 kJ mol^-1
  • Electron affinity: 140.9 kJ mol^-1

Oxidation & Electrons

  • Shells: 2, 6
  • Electron configuration: [He] 2s^2 2p^4
  • Minimum oxidation number: -2
  • Maximum oxidation number: 25
  • Min. common oxidation no.: -2
  • Max. common oxidation no.: 0
  • Electrongativity (Pauling scale): 3.44
  • Polarizability volume: 0.793 A^3

Apperance & Characteristics

  • Structure: ------------
  • Colour: colourless
  • Harmful effects
    • O2 non-toxic under normal conditions
    • O3 is toxic and if inhaled can damage the lungs
  • Characteristics
    • 02
      • odorless
      • tasteless
      • extremley radioactive
      • liquid and solid oxygen is pale blue

Reactions

  • Reaction with air: none
  • Reaction with 6 M HCl: none
  • Reaction with 15 M HNO3: none
  • Reaction with 6 M NaOH: none

Compounds

  • Oxide(s)
    • O2
    • O3
  • Chlode(s)
    • Cl2O
    • ClO2
  • Hydride(s)
    • H2O

Radius

  • Atomic radius: 60 pm
  • ionic radius (1 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (2 + ion): om
  • Ionic radius (3 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (2 - ion): 126 pm
  • Ionic radius (1 - ion): pm

Conductivity

  • Thermal conductivity: 0.025 W m^-1 K^-1
  • Electrical conductivity: S cm^-1

Abundance & Isotopes

  • Abundance earth's crust
    • 46% by weight
    • 60% by moles
  • Abundance solar system
    • 9,000 ppm by weight
    • 700 ppm by moles
  • Isotopes
    • Has 13 whose half lives are known with mass numbers 12-24.
    • 3 are stable
      • ^16O
      • ^17O
      • ^18O
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Fluorine (9)

General

  • Name: Fluorine
  • Symbol: F
  • Type: Halogen
  • Atomic weight: 18.9
  • Density @ 293 K: 0.001 g/cm^3
  • Atomic volume: 17.1 cm^3/mol

Discovered

  • Georgius Agricola noted the use of the mineral flurspar as a flux in 1530.
  • Comes from the Latin word 'fluere' meaning the flow.

States

  • State: Gas
  • Melting point: 53.6 K (-219.6 degrees C)
  • Boiling point: 85.1 K (-188.1 degrees C)

Energies

  • Specific heat capacity: 0.82 J g^-1 K^-1
  • Heat of atomization: 79 kJ mol^-1
  • Heat of fusion: 0.510 kJ mol^-1
  • Heat of vaporization: 6.62 kJ mol^-1 of F2
  • 1st ionization energy: 1681 kJ mol^-1
  • 2nd ionization energy: 3374.1 kJ mol^-1
  • 3rd ionization energy: 6050.3 kJ mol^-1
  • Electron affinity: 382 kJ mol^-1

Oxidation & Electrons

  • Shells: 2, 7
  • Electron configuration: [He] 2s^2 2p^5
  • Minimum oxidation number: -1
  • Maximum oxidation number: 0
  • Min. common oxidation no.: -1
  • Max. common oxidation no.: 0
  • Electronegativity (Pauling scale): 3.98
  • Polarizability volume: 0.634 A^3

Apperance & Characteristics

  • Structure: Cubic crystals in solid phase
  • Colour: Pale yellow
  • Hardness: mohs
  • Harmful effects
    • Highly toxic
    • Corrosive
  • Characteristics
    • The most reactive and electronegative of all the elements.
    • Flammable
    • Pungent odor.

Reactions

  • Reaction with air: none
  • Reaction with 6 M HCl: vigorous, = HF OF2, ClF3
  • Reaction with 3 M HNO3: = NO3F
  • Reaction with 6 M NaOH: vigorous: O2, NaF

Compounds

  • Ocide(s): OF2
  • Chloride(s)
    • ClF
    • ClF3
    • ClF5
  • Hydride(s): HF (fluoric acid)

Radius

  • Atomic radius: 50 pm
  • Ionic radius (1 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (2 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (3 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (2 - ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (1 - ion): 119 pm

Conductivity

  • Thermal conductivity: 0.0277 W m^-1 K^-1
  • Electrical conductivity: S cm^-1

Abundance & Isotopes

  • Abundance earth's crust
    • 585 parts per million by weight
    • 104 parts per million by moles
  • Abundance solar system
    • 500 parts per billion by weight
    • 30 parts per billion by moles
  • Isotopes
    • Has 11 whose half lives are known with mass numbers 15-25.
    • 1 is stable
      • ^19F
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Neon (10)

General

  • Name: Neon
  • Symbol: Ne
  • Type: Noble Gas
  • Atomic weight: 20.179
  • Density @ 293 K: 0.0009 g/cm^3
  • Atomic volume: 16.7 cm^3/mol

Discovered

  • By William Ramsay and Morris Travers during experiments with air in 1898.
  • Comes from the Greek word 'neon' meaning new.

States

  • State: Gas
  • Melting point: 24.53 K (-248.57 degrees C)
  • Boiling point: 27.1 K (-246.0 degrees C)

Energies

  • Specific heat capacity: 0.904 J g^-1 K^-1
  • Heat of atomization: 0 kJ mol^-1
  • Heat of fusion: 0.3317 kJ mol^-1
  • Heat of vaporization: 1.7 kJ mol^-1
  • 1st ionizatoin energy: 2080.6 Kj mol^-1
  • 2nd ionization energy: 3952.2 kJ mol^-1
  • 3rd ionization energy: 6121.9 kJ mol^-1
  • Electron affinity: kJ mol^-1

Oxidation & Electrons

  • Shells: 2, 8
  • electron configuration: [He] 2s^2 2p^6
  • Minimum oxidation number: 0
  • Maximum oxidation number: 0
  • Min. common oxidation no.: 0
  • Max. common oxidation no.: 0
  • Electrongativity (pauling scale): -----------
  • Polarizability volume: 0.396 A^3

Apperance & Characteristics

  • Structure: face centered cubic (FCC)
  • Colour: colourless
  • Hardness: mohs
  • Harmful effects: non-toxic
  • Characteristics
    • light
    • inert gas
    • colourless under normal conditions
    • glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube
    • no stable compounds

Reactions

  • Reaction with air: none
  • Reaction with 6 M HCl: none
  • Reaction with 15 M HNO3: none
  • Reaction with 6 M NaOH: none

Compounds

  • Oxide(s): none
  • Chloride(s): none
  • Hydride(s): none

Radius

  • Atomic radius: 38 pm
  • Ionic radius (1 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (2 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (3 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (2 - ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (1 - ion): pm

Conductivity

  • Thermal conductivity: 0.05 W m^-1 K^-1
  • electrical conductivity: S cm^-1

Abundance & Isotopes

  • Abundance earth's crust
    • 6 ppb by weight
    • 5 ppb by moles
  • Abunddance solar system
    • 1000 ppm by weight
    • 70 ppm by moles
  • Isotopes
    • Has 14 whose half lives are known with mass numbers 16-29
    • 3 are stable
      • ^20 Ne
      • ^21Ne
      • ^22Ne
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Sodium (11)

General

  • Name: Sodium
  • Symbol: Na
  • Type: Alkali metal
  • Atomic weight: 22.98
  • Density @ 293 K: 0.971 g/cm^3
  • Atomic volume: 23.7 cm^3/mol

Discovered

  • By Sir Humphry Davy in 1806.
  • Symbol comes from the latin word 'natrium' menaing hydrated sodium carbonate

State

  • State: Solid
  • Melting point: 370.87 K (97.72 degress C)
  • Boiling point: 1156 K (883 degress C)

Energies

  • Specific heat capacity: 1.23 J g^-1 K^-1
  • Heat of atomization: [Ne] 3s^1
  • Heat of fusion: 2.598 kJ mol^-1
  • Heat of vaporization: 96.960 kJ mol^-1
  • 1st ionization energy: 495.8 kJ mol^-1
  • 2nd ionization energy: 4562.4 kJ mol^-1
  • 3rd ionization energy: 6912.2 kJ mol^-1
  • Electron affinity: 52.868 kJ mol^-1

Oxidationa & Electrons

  • Shells: 2, 8, 1
  • Electron configuration: [Ne] 3s^1
  • Minimum oxidation number: -1
  • Maximum oxidation number: 1
  • Min.common oxidation no.: 0
  • Max. common oxidation no.: 1
  • Electronegavitiy (Pauling scale): 0.93
  • Polarizability volume: 23.6 A^3

Apperance & Charactistics

  • Structure: Body centred cubic (BCC)
  • Colour: Silvery white
  • Harmful effects: Non-tocix, can cause irritation and burns
  • Hardness: 0.5 mohs
  • Characteristics
    • Soft enough to cut with the edge of a coin.
    • Freshly cut surfaces oxidize rapidly in air to form a dull, oxide coating
    • Burns in air with brilliant yellow flame
    • Floats on water

Reaction

  • Reaction with air: vigarous, = Na2O2
  • Reaction with 6 M HCl: viagrous, = H2, NaCl
  • Reaction with 15 M HNO3: vigorous, = NaNO3, NOx
  • Reaction with 6 M NaOH: vigorous, = H2, NaOH

Compounds

  • Oxide(s): Na2O
  • Chloride(s): NACl
  • Hydride(s): NaH

Radius

  • Atomic radius: 186 pm
  • Ionic radius (1 + ion): 116 pm
  • Ionic radius (2 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (3 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (2 - ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (1 - ion): pm

Conductivity

  • Thermal conductivity: 142 W m^-1 K^-1
  • Electrical condictivity: 0.21 x 10^6 S cm^01

Abundance & Isotopes

  • Adundance earth's crust
    • 2.4% by weight
    • 2.1% by moles
  • Abundance solar system
    • 40 parts per million by weight
    • 2 parts per million by moles
  • Isotopes
    • Has 16 whose half lives are know with mass numbers 20-35.
    • One is stable
      • ^23Na
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Magnesium (12)

General

  • Name: Magnesium
  • Symbol: Mg
  • Type: Alkali earth metal
  • atomic weight: 24.3
  • Density @ 293 K: 1.7 g/cm^3
  • Atomic volume: 13.8 cm^3/mol

Discovered

  • Joseph Black a Scottish chemist recognised this element in 1755.
  • First isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in England in 1808.
  • Comes from the Greek work 'Magnesia' a distict of Thesssaly.

States

  • State: Solid
  • Melting point: 923 K (650 degrees C)
  • Boiling point: 1363 K (1090 degrees C)

Energies

  • Specific heat capacuty: 1.02 J g^-1 K^-1
  • Heat of atomization: 146 kJ mol^-1
  • Heat of fusion: 8.48 kJ mol^-1
  • Heat of vaporization: 127.4 kJ mol^-1
  • 1st ionization energy: 737.7 kJ mol^-1
  • 2nd ionization energy: 1450.6 kJ mol^-1
  • 3rd ionization energy: 7732.6 kJ mol^-1
  • Electron affinity: 78 kJ mol^-1

Oxidation & Elctrons

  • Shells: 2, 8, 2
  • Electron configuration: [Ne] 3s^2
  • Minimum oxidation number: 0
  • Maximum oxidation number: 2
  • Min. common oxidation no.: 0
  • Max. common oxidation no.: 2
  • Electrongativity (Pauling scale): 1.31
  • Polarizability volume: 10.6 A^3

Apperance & Characteristics

  • Structure: hexagonal close packed (HCP)
  • Colour: silvery-white
  • Hardness: 2.5 mohs
  • Harmful effects
    • Powder is highly explosive.
    • Bright white light plus ultraviolet from burning magnesium can cause permant eye damage.
  • Characteristics
    • low density
    • reasonably strong metal that tarnishes in air to form an oxide coating
    • good corrosion resistance
    • produces a brilliant white light when burning

Reactions

  • Reaction with air: vigorous, w/ht =
    • MgO
    • Mg3N2
  • Reaction with 6 M HCl: mild, =
    • H2
    • MgCl2
  • Reaction with 15 M HNO3: vigorous, =
    • NOx
    • Mg(NO3)2
  • Reaction with 6 M NaOH: none

Compounds

  • Oxide(s): MgO
  • Chloride(s): MgCl2
  • Hydride(s): MgH2

Radius

  • Atomic radius: 150 pm
  • Ionic radius (1 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (2 + ion):pm
  • Ionic radius (3 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (2 - ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (1 - ion): pm

Conductivity

  • Thermal conductivity: 156 W m^-1 K^-1
  • Electrical conductivity: 22.4 x 10^6 S cm^-1

Abundance & Isotopes

  • Abundance earth's crust
    • 2.3% by weight
    • 2.0% by moles
  • Abundance solar system
    • 700 ppm by weight
    • 30 ppm by moles
  • Isotopes
    • Has 15 whose half lives are known with mass numbers 20-34
    • 3 are stable
      • ^24 Mg
      • ^25 Mg
      • ^26 Mg
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Aluminium (13)

General

  • Name: Aliminuim
  • Symbol: Al
  • Type: Metal
  • Atomic weight: 26.9
  • Density @ 293 K: 2.7 g/cm^3
  • Atomic volume: 9.98 cm^3/mol

Discovered

  • Humphry Davy decomposed alumina in an electric arc to obtain a metal in 1807/1808.
  • First isolated by Hans Christian in 1825.

States

  • State: Solid
  • Melting point: 993 K (660 degrees C)
  • Boiling point: 2740 K (2466 degrees C)

Energies

  • Specific heat capacity: 0.90 J g^-1 K^-1
  • Heat of atomization: 326 kJ mol^-1
  • Heat of fusion: 10.9 kJ mol^-1
  • Heat of vaporization: 293 kJ mol^-1
  • 1st ionization energy: 577.6 kJ mol^-1
  • 2nd ionization energy: 1816 kJ mol^-1
  • 3rd ionization energy: 2744 kJ mol^-1
  • Electron affinity: 42.6 kJ mol^-1

Oxidation & Electrons

  • Shells: 2, 8, 3
  • Electron configuration: [Ne] 3s^2 3p^1
  • Minimum oxidation number: 0
  • Maximum oxidation number: 3
  • Min. common oxidation no.: 0
  • Max. common oxidation no.: 3
  • Electrongativity (Pauling scale): 1.61
  • Polarizability volume: 8.3 A^3

Apperance & Characteristics

  • Structure: face centered cubic (FCC)
  • Colour: Silvery
  • Harmful effects: ingestion may cause alzheimers disease.
  • Hardness: 2.8 mohs
  • Characteristics
    • non magnetic
    • excellent electrical conductor
    • low density
    • pure aliminium is quite soft and lacks strength

Reactions

  • Reaction with air: mild, w/ht = Al2O3
  • Reaction with 6 MM HCl: mild, =
    • H2
    • AlCl3
  • Reaction with 15 M HNO3: passivated
  • Reaction with 6 M NaOH: mild =
    • H2
    • [Al(OH)4]

Compounds

  • Oxide(s): Al2O3
  • Chloride(s)
    • AlCl3
    • Al2Cl5
  • Hydride(s): AlH3

Radius

  • Atomic radius: 125 pm
  • Ionic radius (1 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (2 + ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (3 + ion): 53.5 pm
  • Ionic radius (2 - ion): pm
  • Ionic radius (1 - ion): pm

Conductivity

  • Thermal conductivity: 237 W m^-1 K^-1
  • Electrical conductivity: 37.6 x 10^6 S m^-1

Abundance & Isotopes

  • Abundance earth's crust
    • 8.23% by weight
    • 6.32% by moles
  • Abundance solar system
    • 56 ppm by weight
    • 2.7 ppm by moles
  • Isotopes
    • 15 whose half lives are know
    • Mass numbers 22 to 35.
    • 2 occur naturally.
    • ^27Al is stable
    • ^26Al is radioactive with half life 7.17 x 10^5 years.
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