Political - For
- SPD strongest party till 1932 - support for democracy.
- Although right-wing, Hindenburg did not abstruct Weimar.
- There were fewer political riots during this period.
- Despite adversities, govt. still managed to stay in power.
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Political - Against
- No maturing of the political system - concept of democracy very new.
- Only calm compared to unrest of 1918-23.
- Clashes between the left and right wings.
- Party divisions prevented legalisation being passed.
- Inherent sectionalism - DNVP refuse coalition with SPD in 1926.
- Referendum of Freedom Laws (Art 73) in May 1926 - led by Alfred Hugenberg (DNVP) and Adolf Hitler (NSDAP) - wanted to refuse Young Plan + retract Clause 231 (war blame) -- FAILED.
- 1925 Heidelberg Programme established principles for SPD; issues with opposing views - reduced SPDs influence, weakening democracy.
- SPD behaviour worsened; refused to form viable coalitions.
- Worsened by Hindenburg - adamantly against SPD; insists on inclusion of DNVP in govt.
- Unemployment high in 1929 - 3.6million unemployed; compromise suggested by Muller's Grand Coalition refused by SPD -- COLLAPSE.
- May 1928, lots of small extremist parties gain votes - DNVP lose votes so move towards the right.
- Fall out over imperial flag caused collapse of coalition - incredibly unstable.
- 5 chancellors between 1929 and 1930.
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Economic - For
- Wage rates rising annually.
- Production rates returned to rate of 1913.
- Stresemann brought GER out of depression incurred from 1923 hyper-inflation.
- New currency of the Rentenmarke.
- Dawes Plan - lower rates of payback on reparations.
- Currency stability + some economic growth.
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Economic - Against
- Recovery rather than development.
- Still 15% unemployed.
- Deflation - better than inflation but not good.
- Borchardt - 'Fundamentally sick' -- DOOMED.
- Holtferich - 'Off the rails' -- DISASTER COULD BE AVERTED.
- Stresemann - 'Dancing on a volcano' -- MATTER OF TIME.
- Dependant on foreign affairs - high in debt.
- Collapse in food prices in 1923; severe rural poverty.
- Industrial strikes.
- Employers experienced a loss of power around 1923 - raised working hours from 8 to 10.
- 76,000 cases between 1926 and 1932 went to Court of Arbitration.
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Social - For
- Unemployment insurance introduced - covered 17 million people.
- Improved health care - lowered death rates.
- Increased need for welfare state.
- 1929 - 33 times more people on housing support than in 1913 -- BETTER STANDARD OF LIVING.
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Social - Against
- Govt. agreed compensation but couldn't afford to pay it.
- Paying for social prevented money from going into economy.
- Wouldn't survive due to lack of funding.
- Econony couldn't pay the increased amount of housing benefits.
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Cultural - For
- German people benefitted from freer culture and less censorship.
- Neue Sachlichneit encouraged new developments e.g. Bauhaus movement.
- Functionalism influenced painters like Kandinsky.
- Top European film industry.
- Cultural developments popular with left-wing.
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Cultural - Against
- Right-wing against 'cultural communism'.
- Preferred to look back to GERs traditional past.
- Right and left polarised due to cultural divides; reflected political divisions.
- Both unhappy with democracy and Weimar.
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