Performance-enhancing drugs

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EPO -> naturally occuring hormone responsible for regulation of red blood cell production

  • increase red blood cell count 
  • performer able to carry/transport more oxygen 
  • aerobic respiration more efficient/improved VO2 max
  • Adverse side effects -> increased risk oh heart disease (blood more viscous -> greater strain on heart)
  • common users -> cyclists 

Anabolic steroids - Testosterone 

  • increase the synthesis of protein within muscle cells -> build-up of muscle tissue
  • use of anabolic steroids -> decreases amount of fat in muscle and causes decline in brealdown rate of muscle-building proteins/speed up recovery time - allows heavier training regimes 
  • Adverse side effects -> liver & kidney tumours/high blood pressure/increase in cholesterol/damages peripheral nerves in body/severe acne
  • common users -> variety of power athletes
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Human growth hormone (HGH) -> artificial growth hormone 

  • enhances performance of explosive activities by increasing muscle mass and repairing bones, ligaments and tendons
  • adverse side effects -> joint swelling + pain/high blood pressure/abnormal bone & cartilage growth/irregular heart rhythms/increased risk of diabetes
  • common users -> shot-put/weightlifters

Beta blockers

  • block action of adrenaline/noradrenaline
  • reduce tension and calm performer
  • cause arteries to widen, slow action of heart and decrease its force of contraction -> lowering blood pressure and reduced workload for heart
  • adverse side effects -> tiredness/sleep disturbance/cold hands & feet
  • common users -> archery/shooting 
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