Factors Affecting Performance (1)
Sumo wrestler Sprinter High Jumper
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Factors Affecting performance (2)
- 10-25 years performance can rise to highest
- 25-45 years performance levels deacrease
- 45+ years performance is at its lowest
- Females after puberty- wider hips, more body fat, strength to weight ratio decreases
- Males after puberty- biggere/stronger, bigger muscles, weight increases, bigger bones
- Altitude, weather, pollution and ground surface
- Physical, mental and social well-being
- Good hygeine, attitude, sleep, safety, alcohol/drug abuse and diet (PASSAD)
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Factors Affecting Performance (3)
ILLNESS AND HEALTH
- Nature of the game can cause injury
- Lack of fitness can lead to injury
- Returning too soon after injury/illness can cause further injury
DIET AND HEALTH
- Daily intake=energy used=stable weight
- Daily intake>energy used=weight gain
- Daily intake<energy used=weight loss
- Carbohydrates (fast release energy), protein (growth/repair), water(replace fluids), fats(slow release energy), vitamins A(skin) and C(prevent scurvy) and D(prevent rickets), minerals(strong bones)
- Macronutrients= vitamins and minerals, need small amounts
- Micronutrients= proteins, fats and carbohydrates, need larger amounts
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Drugs in Sport
- Asthmatic treatments, hay fever treatments and prescriped drugs for illness/injury
- Anabolic steroids- accelerate growth and repair of muscle. Can cause heart problems.
- Peptide hormones- similar to steroids. Artificially produced.
- Beta blockers- helps performer to relax. Can cause depression.
- Diuretics- remove fluids and cause quick weight loss. Can act as masking agents for other banned drugs. Can cause loss of vitamins.
- Narcotic analgesics (painkillers)- suppress pain from injury. Can lead to injuries worsening.
- Stimulants- increase alertness. Can increase aggression.
- Alcohol- induce feeling of well-being. Can cause kidney and liver damage.
- Tobacco- a relaxant. Increases heart rate/blood pressure. Can cause blocked arteries.
- Blood doping- (practice) Remove red blood cells, freeze them, re-inject. Better oxygen carrying. Can cause liver damage.
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