Performance

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Factors Affecting Performance (1)

SOMATOTYPE

   Sumo wrestler             Sprinter                High Jumper

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Factors Affecting performance (2)

AGE

  • 10-25 years performance can rise to highest
  • 25-45 years performance levels deacrease
  • 45+ years performance is at its lowest

GENDER

  • Females after puberty- wider hips, more body fat, strength to weight ratio decreases
  • Males after puberty- biggere/stronger, bigger muscles, weight increases, bigger bones

ENVIRONMENT

  • Altitude, weather, pollution and ground surface

LIFESTYLE

  • Physical, mental and social well-being
  • Good hygeine, attitude, sleep, safety, alcohol/drug abuse and diet (PASSAD)
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Factors Affecting Performance (3)

ILLNESS AND HEALTH

  • Nature of the game can cause injury
  • Lack of fitness can lead to injury
  • Returning too soon after injury/illness can cause further injury

DIET AND HEALTH

  • Daily intake=energy used=stable weight
  • Daily intake>energy used=weight gain
  • Daily intake<energy used=weight loss

ENERGY PRODUCTION

  • Carbohydrates (fast release energy), protein (growth/repair), water(replace fluids), fats(slow release energy), vitamins A(skin) and C(prevent scurvy) and D(prevent rickets), minerals(strong bones)
  • Macronutrients= vitamins and minerals, need small amounts
  • Micronutrients= proteins, fats and carbohydrates, need larger amounts
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Drugs in Sport

ACCEPTABLE USE:

  • Asthmatic treatments, hay fever treatments and prescriped drugs for illness/injury

UNACCEPTABLE USE:

  • Anabolic steroids- accelerate growth and repair of muscle. Can cause heart problems.
  • Peptide hormones- similar to steroids. Artificially produced.
  • Beta blockers- helps performer to relax. Can cause depression.
  • Diuretics- remove fluids and cause quick weight loss. Can act as masking agents for other banned drugs. Can cause loss of vitamins.
  • Narcotic analgesics (painkillers)- suppress pain from injury. Can lead to injuries worsening.
  • Stimulants- increase alertness. Can increase aggression.
  • Alcohol- induce feeling of well-being. Can cause kidney and liver damage.
  • Tobacco- a relaxant. Increases heart rate/blood pressure. Can cause blocked arteries.
  • Blood doping- (practice) Remove red blood cells, freeze them, re-inject. Better oxygen carrying. Can cause liver damage.
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