People, work & development

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  • Created by: loui days
  • Created on: 06-12-10 23:07

Industries

Industry-Definitions

Primary Industry: Extracting raw materials from the ground e.g. mining and farming

Secondary Industry: Manufacturing a product using raw materials e.g factory work-making cars.

Tertiary Industry: Providing a service e.g Met Police, teachers etc.

Quaternary: Research and development e.g science research or medical research. (High educations and money is needed)

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Industries

Industry in LEDC's and MEDC's

LEDCs:

·       Majority of people employed in primary industry

·       E.g in India 50% of the population is employed in primary employment whereas in the UK only 2 % of people are employed in the same industry.

MEDCs:

·       Majority of people employed in tertiary industry

·       E.g In Kenya 30% of the population are employed in tertiary industry whereas in the USA 70% of people are employed in tertiary industry

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Difference in employment opportunities

What would affect someone getting a job?

·       Qualifications

·       Sex

·       Competition

·       Nationality

·       Capability (disability?)

·       Age

·       Experience

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Women and work

What work are women employed in?

MEDC:

  • Nurse
  • Teacher
  • Doctor
  • Beautician

LEDC:

  •  Sweatshops
  • Prostitution
  • Farming
  • Hard Labour
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How do employment structures differ between MEDCs

LEDC's:

  • Early stages of development
  • Poor, low standard of living
  • Primarily primary industry e.g. mining & forestry
  • Subsistence farming: farming for themselves
  • Sell raw materials like iron ore to MEDC’s but afford to buy anything in return

NICs

  • Continuing to develop
  • Use of new machinery has reduced the number of people needed to work on farms
  • Many people have moved to the city to find jobs in secondary industry .
  • Richer than before and transport systems, healthcare & education have improved. This is leading to an increase in tertiary industry jobs
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How do employment structures differ between MEDCs

MEDC's:

  • More economically developed
  • Many people employed in tertiary industry
  • Still have many secondary industries but they need fewer workers because of new machinery.
  • Few people in primary industry because they are rich enough to buy most of their raw materials from other countries . This helps them to conserve resources and protect their environment
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Industrial areas

What are they like?

  • Rundown
  • Lack of services or investment
  • Lots of pollution- visual, air & noise
  • Derelict

Where are they located?

  • Liverpool-Ship building
  • South Wales- coal mining, steel mining & engineering
  • Sheffield-Cutlery & coal mining
  • Newcastle- steel & coal mining + ship building

The coalfields are located mostly in the north. Hardly any in south divide.

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LG : inward investment

Definitions:

Multi National Company (MNC)= is a company that operates in more than one country

Hi-Tech Industry= an industry using advanced IT or processes involving micro-electronics

Tariff= a custom duty charged on goods imported into a country.

Conglomerate= an industry that incorporates many different business'

Quota= limit on the number of goods that can be brought into a country

Assisted area= an area that receives extra help in attracting industries. This may be in the form of government grants and low taxes.

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LG

Head office: South Korea

·       Office branches are evenly distributed between MEDC's and LEDC's. Most of the factories are in LEDC's because it is cheaper

Why was LG attracted to the UK?

·       UK is within the EU so they wouldn't have to abide by Quota and Tariff rules when distributing to the rest of Europe.

·       European market can afford hi-tech goods

·       Minimum wage is less than in South Korea= cheaper labour

·       Stable politics, no war likely

·       Cheap transport to European market

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Incentives for LG to locate to South Wales

Incentives for LG to locate to South Wales:

·       Offered £200m from government

·       £180m funding for relocation

·       Offered money from Welsh Development Agency

·       Good transport road and rail to Europe

·       Unemployment in Wales, skilled labour nearby

·       Low cost of wages

·       Near Europe market for demand and could afford goods

·       Greenery and open flat space to build easily and cheaply.

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Why was Newport, South Wales chosen?

Newport was the location chosen in South Wales.

  • High employment in the area
  • Near main roads
  • Spacious (room to expand)
  • Near M4 (transport)
  • Cheap land
  • Near the docks.
  • LG received £30,000 for every job they created (6,000 jobs created)
  • LG pays 20% above the average for a job in South Wales
  • Welsh development agency (WDA) wants to attract business to work there

The location of a new factory brings many benefits to an area including jobs and the demand for goods and services provided by local firms e.g local cafes.-Positive multiplier effect.

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Negative effects of Newport locating to South Wale

Big factory= Visual +Noise pollution and congestion

Brownfield site (already built on)= habitats destroyed

All new jobs in factory= less diversity

Closure would cause huge unemployment and deprivation

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Why do MNCs want to locate to LEDCs?

Cheap labour-no minimum wage in some LEDCs= more profit

Cheaper raw materials & transportation costs= more profit

Cheaper land, factory building and service bills e.g. electricity= more profit

Host country government incentives e.g money=more profit

Fewer environmental laws= cheap to dispose of waste without having to clean it e.g. air pollution = more profit

Fewer labour laws e.g : maternity pay= more profit 

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Conditions in LEDC factories

-Uncomfortable

-Easy spread of disease

-Dangerous/Hazardous

-Cramped

-Hot

-Unhygienic

-Dark, bad lighting

-No airing

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Advantages of MNCs in LEDCs

  • Brings work to the country and uses local labour. More people have jobs= they have more money= better quality of life and standard of living e.g. pay for healthcare
  • Improves levels of education and technical skills of the people, career progression to other jobs may be possible
  • Brings welcome investment and foreign currency to the country = the GDP increases of the country increases= the government have more money from taxes to pay for services for its people
  • Companies provide expensive machinery and modern technology
  • Improvements in roads, airports and some services may allow better access to jobs for those not working at the factory
  • Allows the country to become less reliant on one industry or product for trade.
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Disadvantages of MNCs in LEDCs

  • Very few local skilled workers employed, all the managerial and well paid jobs are located in the headquarters in the MEDCs. Factory managers are often from the MNCs country
  • Money used on providing communications for MNCs would be better spent on improving housing, sanitation and healthcare
  •  LEDC may not have the strict laws on waste disposal as in the MNC country, the local environment could suffer from air and water pollution when waste is dumped
  • Decisions are made outside the host country- MNC could pull out whenever they wanted and leave a negative multiplier effect
  • Local labour force usually paid poorly and work in bad conditions (exploited). Everything is below standard.
  • Mechanisation =reduced the size of the workforce
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Case study: MNCs in LEDCs- GAP in Cambodia

Background: Cambodia is an LEDC in Asia eager to develop. Gap is a MNC that produces clothing with £billions turnover & profit.

Advantages:

·       Money: Basic Wage- £8 a week, paying the legal wage

·       Jobs: No forced overtime. 1 day off a week. Minimum age of 14+ for jobs or the legal  minimum

·       Education: Ban child labour- children can go to school

·       Other: 0 tolerance on underage workers. Code of conduct. Members of international groups against child labour.

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Case study: MNCs in LEDCs- GAP in Cambodia

Disadvantages:

  • Length of work days: Work 7 days a week- if they don't attend work three times they are fired. They should be asked to work 06:15 to 14:15. But they are made to work from 06:15 to 22:15.
  • Wages: Minimum wage is £8 a week- not enough to live on.
  • Lack of reinvestment: No investment in area
  • Working conditions: Made to do what they are told to, they cannot refuse overtime as they would lose their job. No masks to protect them from breathing in bad particles. No breaks or rest periods.
  • Job security: They could lose their job if they don't turn up 3 times for work.
  • Cycle of poverty: Workers live in shanty town, within crowded homes.
  • Other: Hide location of factories.
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South Korea: A newly industrialised country

-Since the industrial revolution, the richest countries in the world have been located around the North Atlantic Ocean, in North America and Europe. This is changing, the fastest rates of industrial and economic growth are now being recorded around the Pacific Ocean, in countries such as Taiwan, Philippines, Hong Kong and South Korea.

Why has South Korea seen such rapid growth?

·       Followed Japans' lead

·       Good long term planning

·       Investment of money from government

·       Cheap labour who work hard

·       Improved transport and communications globally

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South Korea: A newly industrialised country

What are the main industries in South Korea?

  •   Textiles
  •  Petrochemicals
  •  Steel
  •  Electronics (e.g. LG)
  •   Cars e.g. Hyundai and Daewoo
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South Korea: A newly industrialised country

Advantages:

·       Workers gain skills to earn better pay

·       Education opportunities increase, more people have the chance to train in professions e.g. doctors

·       People have more money to afford a better lifestyle e.g. PCs, TVs, holidays, leisure activities etc.

Taxes collected pay for new services e.g. education, transport and healthcare

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South Korea: A newly industrialised country

Disadvantages:

·       Environment neglected (expensive) factory waste in rivers, air pollution

·       Economic benefits take time to spread from urban city areas to rural countryside people e.g. number of health/education services provided

·       Not all workers are paid fairly, profits go to factory owners

·       Increased congestion from traffic

·       Conditions in some factories are very poor; noise, fumes, injuries from accidents, workers not well cared for.

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Tertiary Industry: Tourism in Kenya-LEDC

Why do tourists visit Kenya?

  • Climate- hot most of the year
  • Safari
  • Culture
  • Beaches e.g. Mombasa area

Location of  Kenya:

  • Capital: Nairobi
  • Near Burundi
  • To the east of Kenya you have the Indian Ocean
  • In east Africa
  • The equator runs through the north of the country
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Tertiary Industry: Tourism in Kenya-LEDC

Picture of Kenya

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Tertiary Industry: Tourism in Kenya-LEDC

Advantages:

·       Lots of tourists- strength economy / Tourism= biggest industry

·       Want foreign currency because its stronger than their own currency

·       More tourism- more/better infrastructure- more development/ investment

·       A lot of animal protection- more national parks

·       Sanctuaries for animals which have been hurt in the wild

·       Possible multiplier effect- new tourist industry- new jobs

·       Money- high profits- $400M

·       Employment for local people

·       Less poverty= less crime (therefore money put back into the environment)

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Tertiary Industry: Tourism in Kenya-LEDC

Disadvantages:

·       Recession

·       Civil unrest- riots-unsafe to travel there-bad press/ publicity- less tourists

·       Low wages in tourism

·       Water is scarce- to expensive as you have to drill to get fresh water

·       It would take 8 years for a fishermen in Kenya to make enough money to pay for the cheapest holiday Kenya

·       Pollution from boats tourists are on- harmful to animals

·       Overgrazing on fields as there are too main animals in a small space. Government bring in more animals to make sure tourists are satisfied when they come to a safari

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Tertiary Industry: Tourism in Kenya-LEDC

Disadvantages continued:

·       Dry land=desertification

·       Tourist buses=soil erosion-desertification

·       Exploitation of local people- 50p a day

·       Social problems- litter, prostitution & crime

·       Tourists use a lot of resources (water which is scarce)

·       MNC do not reinvest back into the area e.g. Hilton hotels

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Tertiary Industry: Tourism in Kenya-LEDC

Solutions:

·       Geothermal energy (sustainable and renewable)

·       National parks charge tourists- money goes towards protecting animals

·       Education awareness programs

·       Restriction of area and resources

·       Afforestation

·       Bring in a minimum wage

·       Keep tourist buses away from animals

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Tertiary industry: Tourism in the Peak District-ME

 

Features of a rural area:

·       Tranquil and peaceful

·       Nice landscapes

·       Greenery

·       Better air quality

·       Cheap then the city

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Tertiary industry: Tourism in the Peak District-ME

Picture of three maps

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Tertiary industry: Tourism in the Peak District-ME

Map of peak district

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Tertiary industry: Tourism in the Peak District-ME

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Comments

Emily Miller

Very Useful

Thank you :)

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