PE - Unit 2

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  • Created by: Ella Bond
  • Created on: 13-04-13 10:29

Health and Fitness:

Health is a state of complete mental, physical and social well-being:

Physical well being is important in order to be healthy because it burns fat, increases body image, less prone to injury, improves flexibility, cardiovasular improvement, less prone to disease and overall increases life expectancy.  

Social well being is important to lead a healthy lifestyle because you develop teamwork, increase your self worth, meet new people and develop cooperation. 

Mental well being is important to be healthy because it provides excitement, gives enjoyment, improves self esteem, provides opportunity for success, can relieve stress and develops a sense of being part of something. 

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Components of Fitness:

Agility - the ability to change direction quickly and still keep control of the body

Balance - the ability to keep the body stable with the centre of gravity over the base 

Coordination - the ability to use two or more body parts at the same time

Reaction time - the time it takes to respond to a stimulus

Timing - the ability to judge the place and time of an objects arrival and moving accordingly

Strength - the ability to use muscles to apply force and overcome resistance

Speed - the fastest rate someone can perform a movement or cover a distance

Power - the ability to apply strenth and speed in an action

Flexibility - the joints ability to move to their full range 

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Cardiovascular endurance - the ability of the heart to provide oxygen to the muscles for a prolonged period of time. 

Muscular endurance - the ability to move weight over a long period of time without getting tired. 

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Bones and Joints:

Arm bones - humerous, ulna and radius

Leg bones - femur, tibia, fibula and patella

Foot bones - phalanges, metatarsals and tarsals. 

Hand bones - phalanges, metacarpals and carpals. 

Other bones - cranium, clavicle, scapula, sternum, ribs, vertebral column.

Synovial joints include; ball and socket such as the shoulder or hip, hinge such as the elbow or knee, pivot such as the neck, condyloid such as the wrist and gliding such as the ankle. 

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Arm muscles - deltoid, triceps and biceps.

Leg muscles - hamstrings, quadriceps, gastrocnemius and gluteus maximus.

Torso muscles - trapezius, pectorals, latissimus dorsi and abdominals.

Flexion takes place when the angle at the joint decreases.

Extension takes place when the angle at the joint increases.

Abduction takes place when limbs and bones are moved away from the body.

Adduction takes place when limbs are brought towards the body. 

Muscles work in pairs called antagonistic paris. The agonist pulls and contracts which causes the antagonist to relax and lengthen. 

Tendons attatch muscle to bone and ligaments attatch bone to bone. 

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Principles of Training:

Specificity - matching trainng to the needs of the physical activity. The actions in training should copy those used in the activity. 

Progression - gradually increasing the stresses put on the body in order to improve and make progress in the activity.

Overload - exercising the body more than normal so aiming to work in the target zone 60-80% of MHR. FIT is also included in this; frequency is the number of times you exercise a week, intensity is the level opf difficulty of the exercise and time is the length of time each execise training session lasts. 

Reversibility - any loss to the body when training stops. The body needs to be under frequent stresses in order to maintain and increase strength. 

Tedium - reaching boredom when training. It is important not to reach tedium so in order to prevent this you should vary training. 

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Repetitions, Sets, Rest and Recovery:

Repetitions are the number of times an idividual action is performed. 

Sets are the completed number of allocated repetitions.

You can increase or decrease repetitions and sets in order to increase stresses on the body therefore further progressing in that particular activity. 

Rest and recovery should be balanced with exercise periods in order for training to be effective and to prevent injury during training. Without rest and recovery periods you may overtrain and therefore may produce worse results. 

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Testing Fitness Components:

Speed - 30 metre sprint test

Power - standing long jump test

Strength - vertical jump test

Coordination - alternate hand ball throw

Reaction time - ruler drop test

Balance - stork stand test

Agility - illianois agility test

Cardiovasular endurance - multi stage fitness test

Flexibility - sit and reach test

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Training Methods:

Weight training involves shifting weight to increase the strength of muscles using reptitions and sets. Lifting lighter weights many times develops musculaar endurance, lifting heavy weights with low repetitions develops strength and power, and lifting medium weights with high repetitions builds strength and muscle size.

Circuit training is a series of exercise stations completed for a certain amount of times one after each other. After you have completed each exercise you should rest for an alloted amount of time. This training can can develop power, strength, flexibility and endurance. By repeating the circuit it increases the intensity. 

Interval training involves times of work followed by times of rest. It can be developed to different types of fitness and to develop different types of skills. The working and rest periods can be adapted to mirror those in a particular sport. 

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Training Methods:

Fartlek training means 'speed play' and involves exercise varying in time, distance and effort. Fartlek training works both aerobic and anaerobic fitness due to the changes in intensity of exercises. The session has work of varying intensity taking place over a minimum of 20 minutes. 

Continuous training exercises the body at a moderate rate keeping the pulse at a constant level above the training threshold between 60 and 80% of the MHR. This training works the body anaerobically and keeps the pulse rate high. It improves the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. 

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The Training Year:

Pre-season - working on fitness, strength, mobility, power, speed, skills and strategy which will improve body systems and raise the level of fitness.

Early season - increased work in skill, tactics, mental approach and diet in order to improve the mental and physical ability to meet the challenges of the competition.

Peak season (competition) - emphasis on speed, working at a competative pace and improving fitness in order to aplly skilled performance to competative situations. Improving skill and strategies while maintaining pre-season fitness.

Out of season - resting from the effort of competition, keeping fitness levels, continuing working on strength, flexibility, aerobic fitness and skills. 

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A balanced diet is linking exercise, diet, work and rest. Exercise prepares the body so it is physically capable of completng tasks. In order to exercise the body needs to be fuelled by food so you have enough energy to complete these tasks. Work and rest create a mental and physical balance for the individual providing demanding times and recovery times. The 7 parts to a balanced diet are:

Carbohydrates - found in bread, pasta, rice and potatoes. They are stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen for slow release energy to the muscles and organs.

Protein - found in meat, fish, eggs and poultry. Builds muscle, repairs tissue, enzymes and hormones. Proteins are broken down into amino acids in the body.

Fats - found in milk, cheese, butter, oil and chocolate. Fats provide energy for slow release when carbs aren't present. They increase the size and weight of the body.

Vitamins - found in fruit, vegetables, whole grain and nuts. They help with general health of vision, skin condition, bones, teeth and blood clotting.  

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Minerals - found in milk, fish, red meat, vegetables and cheese. Clacium helps bones grow and aids recovery from injury, iodine aids normal growth, and iron helps produce more red blood cells so carries more oxygen around the body. 

Fibre - found in vegetables, fruit, seeds and wholegrain. Fibre helps digestion and reduces cholestorol making the heart mor efficient. 

Water and fluids - found in all drinks. Two thirds of the body is made up of water, everyone needs regular intakes of fluid to replenish what is lost by urine, sweat and respiration. 

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Overweight and Underweight:

An overweight person can be said to be heavier than the average person of that gender, height and age. However the extra weight is not necesarily a threat to health because it is often mainly muscle weight.

An overfat person has extra muscle for their gender, height and age which does have an effect on their health and can lead to heart problems and diseases. 

An obese person has 20% over the standard weight for their height, their health is at risk including; diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease and early death.

An underweight person has to be 10% under their optimum weight. Being underweight causes problems such as; greater risk of injuries and fatigue.

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