PE- training and sporting skills

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  • Created by: eleanor
  • Created on: 15-04-13 18:53

principles of training (RIPS)

  • Reversibility – any adaptation that takes place as a result of training will be reversed when you stop training. If you take a break or don’t train often enough you will lose fitness
  • Individual Needs- which is your personal fitness needs based on age, gender, fitness level and the sport for which we are training
  • Progessive Overload - fitness can only be improved by training more than you normally do. You must start slowly and gradually increase the amount of exercise and keep overloading.
  • Specificity – training must be matched to the needs of the sporting activity to improve fitness in the body parts the sport uses.
  • In planning a programme, use the FITT principles:
    • Frequency - decide how often to train.
    • Intensity - choose how hard to train.
    • Time - decide for how long to train.
    • Type - decide which methods of training to use.
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warm up and cool down

  • warm-up- 
  • gets your body ready for exercise 
  • increases blood flow to muscles 
  • strecthes muscles 
  • concentrates the mind 
  • Whole body exercise to raise heart rate and body temperature.
  • Stretching to prepare muscles, ligaments and joints.
  • Practising skills and techniques to be used in the session.


  • gets your body back to normal
  • helps reduce muscle tightening 
  • gets rid of extra blood and stops pooling in veins 
  • Light exercise to help remove carbon dioxide, lactic acid and other waste products.Gentle stretching to prevent muscle soreness and stiffness later.


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training methods

  • Circuit training involves performing a series of exercises in a special order called a circuit. Each activity takes place at a 'station'. It can be designed to improve speed, agility, coordination, balance and muscular endurance.
  • Continuous training involves working for a sustained period of time without rest. It improves cardio-vascular fitness.
  • Cross training involves using another sport or activity to improve your fitness. It happens when an athlete trains in a different environment. For example a volleyball player uses the power training for that sport to help with fitness for long jump.
  • Fartlek training or 'speed play' training involves varying your speed and the type of terrain over which you run, walk, cycle or ski. It improves aerobic and anaerobic fitness.
  • Interval training involves alternating between periods of hard exercise and rest. It improves speed and muscular endurance
  • Weight training uses weights to provide resistance to the muscles. It improves muscular strength (high weight, low reps), muscular endurance (low weight, high reps, many sets) and power (medium weight and reps performed quickly)
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aerobic and anaerobic

  • In aerobic exercise, which is steady and not too fast, the heart is able to supply enough oxygen to the muscles. Aerobic training improves cardiovascular fitness.
  • Aerobic fitness is another way of describing cardiovascular fitness, or stamina. You can improve aerobic fitness by working in your aerobic target zone. This is found between 60-80% of your MHR. You cross your aerobic threshold, the heart rate above which you gain aerobic fitness, at 60% of our MHR. 
  • Anaerobic exercise is performed in short, fast bursts where the heart cannot supply enough oxygen to the muscles. Anaerobic training improves the ability of the muscles to work without enough oxygen when lactic acid is produced.
  • You can improve your anaerobic fitness, which includes strength, power and muscular endurance, by working in your anaerobic target zone. This is found between 80-100% of your MHR. Anaerobic threshold is the heart rate above which you gain anaerobic fitness. You cross your anaerobic threshold at 80% of your MHR. Below 60% MHR you do not improve your aerobic or anaerobic fitness at all.
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effects of exercise- bones/muscles

Immediate effects when first exercising:

  • Muscles contract more often
  • Blood flow to muscles increases
  • Muscle temperature rises
  • Little effect on bones and joints

Effects of regular training:

  • Muscles increase in size (hypertrophy)
  • Muscular endurance improves
  • Muscles, tendons and ligaments around joints get stronger
  • Joints become more stable and flexibility at joints increases
  • Bone width and density increases
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SMART Targets

Specific- say exactly what you want to achieve, you need to be specific and outline exactly what you need to do to reach your target.

Measurable- goals need to be measurable so you can know when you've achieved them. 

Archievable- you need to make your targets are set at the right level of difficulty. if the target is too easy it wont motivate you. if its to difficult you might just give up. 

Realsitic- this means making sure you have everything you need to be able to  fulfil your target. the could be physically or resources wise. 

Time- give you a deadline for reaching your goal. it could be short or long term targets 

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