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Practice/Rehearsal - we often practise repetitive skills drills that encourage movements to become almost automatic - For example, a hockey player dribbling the ball recognises a route opening to the goal and runs into that opening to take a shot at the goal in an almost automatic response. This response has been practised many times in training when the stimulus of the opening becomes apparent. 

Trial and Error - widely used in the teahcing of motor skills and is extremely effective. Rewards are used extensively in skills teaching becuase they reinforce the type of movements or techniques required. - For example, if you wished to teach a deep serve in tennis, you might draw a large chalk circle at the back of the opposing service box and ask the learner to try to serve into the chalk circle. After numerous practice sessions, which would be increasingly successful, you would draw a smaller circle and encourage the learner to serve into the smaller target.

Copying - when teaching skills, it is the demonstration process that is particularly important in observational learning. - For example, if a coach or teacher of gymnastics wanted to demonstrate the handstand or use another performer to demonstrate, it is best if: Demonstrater is good at the activity, technique is highlighted, demonstration is repeated, activity is practised and rehearsed, rewards are avaliable.

Appropriate Role Models - top sports people sometimes forget that they are enthusiastically watched by many young viewers who will try to copy their every move - they are role models, whose behaviour is seen as acceptable and preferable to that of others.

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Operant conditioning:

  • Repitition of skills - the response become automatic to the stimulus - e.g. put hands up to catch ball.
  • Observational learning - the learner watches, copies and imitates, there is no formal teaching.
  • Demonstration - there is intention by teacher to demonstrate a skill. e.g. showing how to throw javelin. 
  • Motivation - performer needs to be motivated by drill else learning will not take place.
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Feedback can given during or after a performance. It is most effective if it is given close to the performance so the performance is fresh in the participants mind. Feedback motivates performers but if used incorrectly can also demotivate. 

  • Knowledge of results - information recieved at the end about result.
  • Knowledge of performance - how well the movement is being performed.
  • Intrinsic - how you feel - information from the propriocepters(muscle and nerve endings).
  • Extrinsic - from another source - from coach either visual or verbal.

Motivation: the internal mechanisms and external stimuli which arouse and direct our behaviour.

Intrinsic motiavtion - internal drive and willpower that people have to participate and do well in activity.

Extrinsic motiavtion - external to the performer may be from a teacher or coach etc. 

Ego orientation - doing it because you want to win or beat others.

Task orientation - doing it to keep healthy or playing sport or because you enjoy improving your personal best.

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Specific - clear and unambiguous, more likely to be attained. For example, to improve the serve technique in tennis is specific.

Measurable - important for monitoring and make you accountable. For example, eating five portions of fruit or veg each day is measurable.

Achieveable - needs to be reasonable and fit the particpant. 

Realistic - will motivate the performer if the goals can actually be achieved. 

Time phased - over a certain time period

Exciting - needs to be fun for participants to achieve well.

Recorded - record results in order to see progress made and compare to averages.

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