PE- Short Course

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  • Created on: 10-04-13 13:56

Heathy Active Lifestyle

- A healthy active lifestyle is one that contributes positively to your physical, social and mental well being. 

This is achived through:

-Regular exercise and physical activity  

-Eating a balanced diet              

-Avoiding harmful substances                                                                                   

-Sustaining friendships 

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Benefits of Physical Activity

The benefits of physical activity fall into THREE main categories:

-Physical: examples, Increase of individual wellbeing and contribute to good health

-Mental: example, helps to relieve stress and individual feels good

-Social: example, develops friendships and meeting new people 

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Personal Qualities

Personal Qualities are developed from being a member or taking part in physical activities.

These Qualities are:

-Co-operation: from working with people 

-Competition: from testing yourself against others

-Physical Challenge: from challenging yourself against your personal achievements and your environment

-Aesthetic Appreciation: from recognizing the quality of movements 

-Friendships: from meeting and working with new people 

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Key Influences

There are key influences that may impact the choice of physical acitivty:

1) Cultural: disability, age, gender, race 

2) Heath and Wellbeing: illness, health problems 

3) Image: fashion, media coverage

4) Resources: availability, access, time, location 

5) People: role models, family, friends

6) Socio-economic: cost, precived status of activity

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Opportunities and Roles in Physical Activity

There are many roles and opportunities available within physical activity. These roles hold specific qualities.

Participant: example student- determined, trained, skilled, committed, hard working 

Leadership: example coach- committed, knowledgeable, approachable, leadership 

Officiating: example timekeeper- committed, fair, accurate, knowledgeable, aware, alert 

Volunteering: example Games Makers- approachable, friendly, knowledgeable, committed

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Participation Pyramid

There are four stages in Physical Activity; foundation, participation, performance and elite/excellence. 


-At this stage participants are learning the BASIC sporting skills.


-Organised and contributed significantly by Sport Developments.

-Example: primary school PE lessons


-Participants concentrate on specific areas, to extend their skills

-Governing body responsible for Performance stage 


-Professional level, peak of pyramid 

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Purpose of Initiatives

The purpose of initiatives developed to provide oppurtunities; for becoming, remaining or being involved in a physical activity.

-Increase participation in sport to inprove health with a focus on priority groups.

-Retain people in sport through an effective network of clubs, sports, facillites, coaches, volunteers and competition.

-Create oppurtunities for talented performers to achieve success.

-Their contributions to the development of healthy lifestyles.

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Sporting Agencies

There are agencies involved in the provisions of oppurtunities, their goals are to increase oppurtunities for becoming or remaining involved in physical activity. 

-Sports England 

-Youth Sport Trust 

-National Governing Bodies 

are examples of agiences. 

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Key Words

Heath- a state of MENTAL, PHYSICAL and SOCIAL well being and not merely the absence of DISEASE or INFIRMITY. 

Exercise- a form of physical activity that helps MAINTAIN and IMPROVE HEALTH and/or PHYSICAL FITNESS.

Fitness- the ability to meet the DEMANDS of the environment.

Performace- how well the task is performed. 

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Health Related Fitness

There are 5 components to HEALTH RELATED fitness. 

Body Composition- The PERCENTAGE of body weight that is, FAT, MUSCLE and BONE.

Cardiovascular Fitness- The ability to EXERCISE the WHOLE BODY for LONG PERIODS OF TIME without TIRING. 

Flexibility- The range of MOVEMENT possible at a JOINT.

Muscular Endurance- the ability to use the VOLUNTARY muscles many times without getting TIRED.

Muscular Strength- the amount of FORCE a muscle can EXERT against a RESISTANCE

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Skill Related Fitness

There are 6 components to SKILL RELATED fitness.

Agility- The ability to CHANGE the POSITION of the body QUICKLY and to CONTROL the movement of the whole body. 

Balance-The ability to RETAIN the body's centre of MASS above the basic support with reference to STATIC or DYNAMIC, conditions of MOVEMENT, SHAPE and ORIENTATION. 

Coordination- The ability to MOVE TWO or MORE body parts TOGETHER.

Power- The ability to do STRENGTH performances QUICKLY.

Reaction Time- The time between the presentation of a STIMULUS and the onset of a MOVEMENT. 

Speed- The differential RATE at which an individual is able to PERFORM a MOVEMENT or COVER A DISTANCE in a period of time. 

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PAR-Q= Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire 

A PAR-Q is designed to identify any potential health problems that mean physical activty would not be recommended. 

Typical Questions 

- Personal Details: Weight 

-Family health history

-Known health problems: High blood pressure 

-Lifestyle: Smoking 

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Fitness Tests

To asses fitness levels in order to develop a fitness programme you need to know:          Fitness requirements, tests to measure the components, interpret results, make recommendations. 

Fitness Tests are used: BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER a physical programme.

- To establish current levels of fitness 

- Strengths and weaknesses in fitness

- To make SMART targets 

- To see fitness improvements 

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Fitness Tests: Health Related Fitness

Cooper Run:                                                                  Sit and Reach:

-Cardiovascular Fitness                                                   - Flexibility  

-Long Distance Runners                                                  - Gymnast, Hurdlers

Harvard Step Test:

-Cardiovascular Fitness

-Long Distance Runners, Endurance Activities 

Treadmill Test:

-Cadiovascular Fitness 

-Long Distance Runners, Endurance Activities 

Hand Grip Test 

-Muscular Stength 

-Rock Climbers 

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Fitness Tests: Skill Related Fitness

Illinois Agility Test:                                   Three Ball Juggle/ Alternate Wall Toss: 

- Agility                                                     - Hand Eye Co-ordination 

- Basketball, Rugby Players                       - Tennis and Netball Players 

30 Metre Sprint:                                        Ruler Drop Test :

- Speed                                                     - Reaction Time 

-100 metre sprinters, rugby                         - Sprinters, Game Players 

Sargent Jump:                                         Standing Stork Test:

- Power                                                     - Balance

- Rugby Players                                        - Gymnasts 

Standing Broad Jump:

- Power 

- Sprinters, Rugby 

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Principles of Training (SPORR and Individual Needs

The principles of training are used to create an effective exercise plan. 

Individual Needs: 


Progressive Overload:

Rest and Recovery:

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SMART targets

Setting targets are important as they can; track progress, help you monitor progress, feel good, motivated and focused. 

Specific: Your goals must be CLEAR 

A vauge idea is not enough you must choose a specific area to work on. 

Measurable: To see if your goals have been successful they need to be measurable. 

The best way to measure something is to have a unit of measure. 

Achievable: Your targets must be something that is possible for you to do 

Avoid unachievable targets as they can demotivate participants. 

Realistic: A goal that is realistic has all the factors (example facilities)

Your goal may be achievable but it has to be realistic. 

Timebound: Cut- off point which you should have achieved your goal by 

There are short term, medium and long term targets. 

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Methods of Training (Type FITT)

Interval-Periods of intense activity with breaks within the session to allow recovery.                       -Good for games players.  

Continuous-Steady aerobic activity with no rest.                                                                                -Many athletes can take part in continuous training and it helps improve CVF

Circuit-Stations which can improve your health related or skill related fitness                                -Not expensive and can be tailored to the individual needs of the athletes. 

Cross-Mixture of training , helps relieve monotony.

Weight-Lifting weights and using progressive overload to increase weight.                                     -Improves muscular endurance and muscular strength 

Fartlek- is a form of CONTINOUS training. Variations in pace and terrain covered.                         - It improves muscular endurance and cardiovascular fitness, good for games 

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Methods of Training

Interval: anaerobic                                      

Cardiovascular fitness, endurance. Sprinters and general athletes .Cycling, running 

Continuous: aerobic 

Cardiovascular and muscular endurance. General athletes. Jogging, walking, swimming 

Cross: both 

Cardiovascular fitness. Heptathletes, general athletes. Running, cycling 

Circuit: both 

Muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness. General athletes. Stations 


Muscular Strength/ endurance. Body builders, general athletes. Machine, free weights 

Fartlek: both 

Cardiovascular fitness. Team Players. Jogging, running. 

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Exercise Session


- preparing body for work                                                                                                 - Prevents injury, streching, gradually increading heart beat and exchange of haemoglobin. 


-The main event or activity                                                                                              -Method of training, 60%-80% of maximum heart rate. Skill related fitness.


-brings down the heart rate                                                                                               - returns body to normal temperature, removes lactic acid, light jog, streching, relives stress and tension 

Maximum Heart Rate= 220- age 

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Heart Rates

  • Resting Heart Rate: Your heart rate at rest 
  • Working Heart Rate: Your heart rate during exercise. 
  • Recovery Rate: The time it takes for your heart rate to return to your resting heart rate after exercise. The fitter you are the quicker this happens. 

Target Zone 

220 - age, 60-80% 

example: Participant is 20 

220-20= 200, 200 x 0.6= 120 bpm and 200 x 0.8 = 160 bpm 

note: Heart rate graphs- check for target zones!

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Balanced Diets

Balanced Diet: Eating the right food, in the right amounts. This will enable us to work and exercise properly. 

Input vs Output 

Health problems can occur if 

  • You eat too much in relation to the amount of activity you do (can become over weight which can lead to health problems)
  • You eat too little in the relation to the amount of exercise you do (can become under weight and also lead to health problems. 
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Mcronutrients are needed in LARGE quantities as we need them for ENERGY, GROWTH and REPAIR. There are three main types of macronutrients:


  • Contained in pasta, potatoes, rice 
  • Should be eaten in GREATER quanities than other macronutrients 
  • Provide energy for aerobic and anaerobic exercise 


  • Contained in meat, butter, oil
  • Should be the SMALLEST percentage of macronutrients in our diet 
  • Provide energy,c an be eaily stored. 


  • Contained in eggs, cheese, meat 
  • Growth and repair of muscles 
  • Produce energy, can aid muscle growth 
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Micronutrients are needed in our diets in SMALL quantites and help maintain GOOD HEALTH. As they cannot be stored we must eat them everyday. 

Fibre and Water (not nutrients but needed)

  • Fibre aids the digestive system 
  • Water prevents dehydration and is in most liquids and foods 

Minerals and Vitamins 

  • Can help with immune system, general health and growth 
  • Found in fresh fruit and vegetables 

Vitamin D and Calcium 

  • Vitamin D is found in dairy products such as cheese, eggs helps body absorb calcium. 
  • Calcium helps keep bones strong. 
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Blood Shunting

Blood Shunting: Blood being diverted from inactive areas to working muscles. Example, blood can be shinted from the stomach, so its important to wait at least 2 hours for food to be digested before exercise. 

Vasocontricition: blood vessels become smaller. 

  • Chemical changes from exercise trigger signals from your nervous system.
  • These signals can cause the blood vessels that supply the INACTIVE areas to CONSTRICT reducing blood flow to those areas. 

Vasodilation: blood vessels dialating

  • Chemical changes from exercise trigger signals from nervous system. 
  • These signals cause the blood vessels that supply the ACTIVE areas to DILATE increasing blood flow to these areas. This means that these muscles receive more oxygen and nutrients. 
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