P.E Revision Notes

A few notes that helped me for my GCSE :)

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Functions Of The Skeleton

There are several functions of the skeleton but the three you need to remember that all other functions fit into are the following 3...

1. Support

2. Protection

3. Movement

 

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Isotonic & Isometric Muscle Contractions

Isotonic- When the muscles work in pairs and create movement, one works while one relaxes

E.g Hamstrings and Quadraceps when Running

Isometric- When the muslces stay the same length

E.g doing a handstand

 

Remember between the two by looking at the words, isometric is like a metre and is fixed, you can't change the length of it.

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Joint Movements

Hinge Joints...

The Elbow...

It allows the arm to bend (flex) or straighten (extend) and happens when doing curls with weights.

The Knee joint...

This is the largest and most complex joint. The tibia is hinged on the femur so that the leg can be bent or straighened. It can also be rotated slightly. Two short ligaments prevent the bones from sliding apart.

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Joint Movements

Ball and Socket Joints

They are called ball and socket joint because the head of the bone is shaped like a ball and fits into the socket which is shaped like a cup. The hip and shoulder are very similar, the bones are covered with cartilage and held together with ligaments.

The shoulder has more movement than the hip.

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Different Types of Movement

 

Flexion- When the angle of the joint is getting smaller

Extension- When the angle of the joint is getting bigger

Adduction- When the movement is adding to the body (e.g bringing your arms into your side)

Abduction- When the movement is taking away from the body

Rotation- When the movement involves rotation.

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