PE process 5

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Seven Components Of A Healthy Diet

  • carbohydrates-bread, cereal, crackers, pasta, rice, potatoes
  • proteins-eggs, milk, white meat (e.g. chicken, fish), dairy products (e.g. yoghurt)
  • fats-red meat, lard, chocolate
  • water
  • minerals-green leafy vegetables
  • vitamins-naturally grown produce, bright coloured produce 
  • fibre-potato skin, brown bread, bananas
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Carbohydrates are an energy souce which are rich in sugar (e.g. glucose).

Can be eaten before sports events to that the performer has plenty of energy ready for the activity. 


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Proteins are for growth and repair of body tissues.

Can also be used for a small source of energy.

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Supplies 70% of our energy.

Its stored in our body tissues so if we exceed our fat requirements we can become overweight. 

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Needed in minute quantities.

Used for building and maintaining body tissue

By eating a varied and balanced diet we ensure we eat all the minerals we need. 

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Two main groups:

  • Fat Soluble 
  • Water soluble 

Needed for normal bodily function

Aid food in digestion and they increase resistance to disease and infections. 

Need to eat a varied and balanced diet to intake all the vitamins needed. 

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Regulates digestive system. 

Retains water in digestive system. 

Removes waste products. 

(helps you poo) 

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Assists in turning stored fat into energy (during exercise) 

Relieves fluid retention problems 

Helps maintain muscle tone

Helps remove waste


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Characteristics of a Balanced Diet

To lead a balanced diet you must:

  • not smoke 
  • not drink alcohol or drink in moderation 
  • not take drugs
  • eat a varied and balanced diet 
  • do exercise 
  • keep hydrated

You need to have a balanced diet, this means getting the energy balance right. If you consume more energy than what you need then you will get fat or obese. If you dont consume enough energy that you require you will lose weight or get anorexic.

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Effects Of Smoking on Performance

Affects your health no matter your age.

Smoking lowers your energy levels.

Cigarrettes contain Tar, Nicotine, Carbon Monoxide etc.

Haemoglobin carries the oxygen around the body but it prefers to carry carbon monoxide, once it carried the carbon monoxide around the body then it can't carry oxygen around the body again, (can't get rid of the carbon monoxide). This can take away up to 10% of your oxygen carry capacity ------>this means you will work at a rate of 10% less than you could without smoking. 

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Effects Of Performance Enhancing Drugs On Your Per

The chemical in drugs (both recreational and performance enhancing) alter the way we see and feel things, this can become addictive making it hard to stop using them. 

Athletes can use buffers which hide the drug in your blood so it cannot be found when taking blood tests and urine samples. 

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Blood Doping

Three methods athletes use to boost their red blood cells in their circulation to improve their performance(e.g. swimmers that do this would be able to carry more oxygen around their body to make the muscles work and contract at a faster rate due to the extra oxygen). These three things are: 

  • Using ergothroprotein - drug 
  • Using synthetic oxygen carriers - man made haemoglobin 
  • blood transfusions

Antidoping involves tests to see if these doping methods have occured because it is a serious concern in sport in the UK so the government try and prevent it.  

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Measures/Indicators Of Health And Well-Being

  • Satisfaction with aspects of life - how satisfied we feel about life on a whole. Don't have to be happy all of the time about everything but to be healthy and balanced you should feel satisfied and happy with most things in life
  • Frequency of positive and negative feelings - how often you feel positive and negative about life. The more you think positively about life, the higher the likelihood of you having a healthy and balanced life (mentally and physically). Feelings and activities which you do have an impact on how you feel. 
  • Access to green space - living in overcrowded conditions or having limited green space or no vegetation or green space around you will make you feel less good. This is strongly linked to depression& affect your health and well-being 
  • Level of participation in a range of physical activities - people who participate in more activities (more active) are often happiest, due to endorphins being released in the body. A person with a variety of interests will have a better view of themselves and others.
  • Positive mental health - feeling happy and optimistic about the future means you are more likely to have positive mental health. If you are more relaxed you tend to be more interested in others and deal with problems well which is also considered positive mental health 
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