PE MURPHY information processing

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info processing 3 main components

1. STIMULUS IDENTIFICATION

       a) PERCEPTION - detection (of outside stimulus), comparison (to stored memories), recognition (of stimuli)

       b) proprioception - information about the movement of our body in space, its balance, positions, limbs etc...

      3 components = touch (tactic sense detect pressure), equilibrium(balance, twisting, agility...), kinaesthesis (movement of muscles, limbs, body awareness)

2. RESPONSE SELECTION STAGE (TRANSLATION STAGE)

      deciding how to respond to the given environment 

      quicker decision making = better performer 

      things that effect speed of decision making: 1)detection of cues 2)practice 3)overload 4)knowledge of cues 5)reaction time 6)anticipation 

3. RESPONSE PROGRAMMING STAGE 

     choosing a motor programme and selecting a response - where we put an action to the decision made

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selective attention

  • filtering out relevent information from irrelevnt information that is taken in from the display
  • performer knows what is relevent by comparing to stored memories & recognition 

CAN BE IMPROVED BY: 

1. changing intensity of the stimulus 

2. motivationg the performer

3. transfering previous experiences and skills 

4. highlighting cues

5. identifying cues 

6. lots of relevant prectice

7. learn to ignore irrelevant stimuli

>> happens between short term sensory store (STSS) and short term memory (STM)

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memory stores

1) SHORT TERM SENSORY STORE

FUNCTIONS: collects all information entering the body via the display and sensory system                         selective attention happens here 

CHARACTERISTICS: all info held breifly - 0.25-1 second          unlimited capacity 

2) SHORT TERM MEMORY

FUNCTIONS: motor programmes ran here       info encoded and passed to LTM

CHARACTERISTICS: 5-9 pieces of info        only relevent stimuli enter                                                                       held up to 30 secs         improved by rehearsal / practice 

3) LONG TERM MEMORY 

FUNCTIONS: permanent retention through repetition   stores experiences as motor programmes                    info used to compare against new experiances 

CHARACTERISTICS: permanent storage           unlimited capacity 

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reaction, movement & response time

REACTION TIME + MOVEMENT TIME = RESPONSE TIME 

  • REACTION TIME: time between the onset of the stimulus and intiation of response 
  • MOVEMENT TIME: time it takes to complete the movement 
  • RESPONSE TIME: time from onset of stimulus to completion of movement  

2 TYPES OF REACTION TIME:

  • SIMPLE: 1 stimulus and 1 reponse (quicker) (eg. 100m sprint starting gun)
  • CHOICE: several stimuli and several responses (longer) (eg. passing within a netball game)

IMPROVING REACTION TIME

1)practice 2)anticipate cues 3)mental rehersal 4)heightened arousal 

IMPROVING RESPONSE TIME

1)improve selective attention 2)practice 3)improving fittness 4)anticipation 5)correct arousal levels 6)mental rehersal 7)increase stimulus identity / kmowledge of cues

>>improving reaction time will improve response time 

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hicks law, single channel hypothesis, psychologica

HICKS LAW: reaction time increases as the amount of information to process increases

SINGLE CHANNEL HYPOTHESIS: can only process 1 piece of info at 1 time

PSYCOLOGICAL REFRACTORY PERIOD: the first stimulus has to be cleared before the second can be processed 

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anticipation & motor programmes

2 TPYES OF ANTICIPATION:

1) SPATIAL: guessing what movement will happen 

2) TEMPORAL: guessing when the action will happen 

MOTOR PROGRAMMES

Pre determined set of neutral commands / sequence of rub-routines that are put together to make up the skill/motor programme

>>developed through practice   >>retrieved from LTM   >>run in STM

MOTOR PROGRAMME CHARACTERISTICS:

1)made up of sub-routines 2)stored in LTM 3)perfect imagine is stored 4)formed by practice     5)1 stmuli can trigger the whole programme 

SUB-ROUTINES: separate movements that make up a whole skill; 'complex' skills are easier to break down and learn/teach each component separartley 

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open & closed loop theory

OPEN LOOP THEORY:

  • without feedback
  • movements can not be modified
  • not every action goes through STM as mass overload would happen
  • programmes are hierarchical
  • movements quick & discrete

CLOSED LOOP THEORY:

  • with feeback
  • can be modified as constantly being evaluated
  • movements generally with a longer time period, continuous skills

MEMORY TRACE:used for selecting and initiating movement (not controllling it)                           PERCEPTUAL TRACE:used as point of reference/comparision during movement

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open & closed loop theory

OPEN LOOP THEORY:

  • without feedback
  • movements can not be modified
  • not every action goes through STM as mass overload would happen
  • programmes are hierarchical
  • movements quick & discrete

CLOSED LOOP THEORY:

  • with feeback
  • can be modified as constantly being evaluated
  • movements generally with a longer time period, continuous skills

MEMORY TRACE:used for selecting and initiating movement (not controllling it)                           PERCEPTUAL TRACE:used as point of reference/comparision during movement

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why do skills break down?

7 REASONS:

1) information overload

2) cannot identify the correct stimulus 

3) limited responses to deal with situation

4) unable to concentrate on the response

5) unable to decide on response

6) cannot adjust their response to suit the demand of the situation

7) insufficent processing capacity to process or complete the whole skill

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