There are 3 basic somatotypes (body types). Everyone tends towards one although few people are totally one or another.
- Ectomorphs - narrow-shaped body, are thin faced, with little fat or muscle. This is the ideal body type for long-distance runners.
- Mesomorphs - wedge-shaped body, wide shoulders, narrow hips, muscular. Ideal body type for sprinters.
- Endomorphs - pear-shaped body, wide hips, wide shoulders, can have a lot fat on body, arms and thighs. When fit, ideal body type for weightlifting, wrestling.
A person's ideal body weight depends on their body type, age, gender, height, the size of their bones, and their muscle size. These factors also affect their participation and performance in sport.
optimum weight depends on:
- bone structure
- muscle girth
- being underweight means weighing less than is normal, needed or healthy
- being overweight means weighing more than normal
- overfat means having more body fat than you should.
- being obese means being very overfat.
Peptides and hormones- EPO (Erythropoietin) red blood cells - gives more energy- risk of stroke or heart problems.
HGH (Human Growth Hormone) - build muscle - abnormal growth, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis etc
Narcotic analgesics Mask pain caused by injury which can make the injury worse.
Anabolic steroids-Help athletes to train harder and build muscle Increased aggression and kidney damage
Stimulants- Make athletes more alert and mask fatigue. it Can cause heart failure, addictive
Diuretics- Remove fluid from the body. Used to make the weight, eg in boxing or to hide other drug use, it Causes severe dehydration
Beta blockers are banned in archery and shooting as they keep the heart rate low and reduce tremble in the hands.
Blood doping is injecting blood that has been removed from the body a few days earlier, enabling the blood to carry more oxygen. It can cause kidney and heart failure.
The authoritiesare responsible for:
- the rules- to reduce dangerous play
- referees- to check the environment and insist on fair play
- insisting on protective equipment and removal of jewellery
- balancing competition- by age, weight, gender, skill level
Player is responsible for:
- being fit enough
- using correct technique
- wearing the right clothing and equipment, e.g. making sure shoes fit correctly
- checking that the environment is safe
- warming up and cooling down
- etiquette - playing fair and respecting their opponents