Sports Participation Pyramid 1
Stage 1: Foundation Introductory Stage
- Level that contains most people
- Level where people start or try activity where they only have basic skills
- Compulsary at school.
Stage 2: Participation Stage
- Where you choose to continue with the sport eg after school clubs
- Fewer people than stage 1
- Sport is at a higher level of skill.
Sports Participation Pyramid 2
Stage 3: Performance Stage
- Really good at sport
- Non compulsary
- Where people play in leagues but not at top level
- Where skill is improved by coaching and playing in competitions.
Stage 4: Elite Stage
- Very few performers who are at national and international level
- Requires huge amount of skill and determination.
Cardiovascular Fitness: the ability to move the entire body for long periods of time without tiring.
Muscular Endurance: the ability to use voluntary muscles many times without getting tired.
Muscular Strength: the amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance.
Flexibility: the range of movement possible at a joint.
Body Composition: the percentage of body weight that is fat muscle and bone.
Agility: the ability to change the position of the body quickly and control the movement of the whole body.
Balance: the ability to retain the bodys centre of mass above the base of support with referance to static or dynamic conditions of movement shape and orientation.
Co-ordination: the ability to use two or more body parts together.
Power: the ability to do strength performances quickly, in order to have power you must have strength and speed.
Reaction Time: time it takes to react to a given stimulus.
Speed: the amount of time it takes to perform a particular action or cover a particular distance.
Effects of HRF 1
Cardiovascular fitness is required when activities:
- Are mainly aerobic
- Lasts a long time
- Involve prolonged additional oxygen deliver
Cardiovascular fitness is used by performers who need to:
- Maintain quality of performance over a long time
- Work the body for a long period of time without tiring
Muscular strength is needed for activities which require force, it should not be confused with power. it can be used on its own or combined with speed as an aspect of power.
Effects of HRF 2
Muscular endurance is required whe activities:
- Are mainly aerobic
- Lasts a long time
- Require repeated use of the same muscles
Muscular endurance is used by performers who need;
- Prolonged additional oxygen delievery to working muscles
- To repeat muscle contractions over a long period of time without tiring
Flexibility is important in all activities, can be used to perform splits, increase in stride length and to achieve different positions.
Body composition will impact on all performers for example a sprinter will need and low ratio of body fat to muscle.
Effects of SRF 1
Agility is two components:
- the ability to change direction
- the ability to do so quickly
Agility is used by performers that need to dodge to avoid others
Balance is used in all activiies but there are some where balance is espically important.
Co-ordination is important im all activities. three types of co-ordination;
- Hand-eye; needed by a tennis player
- Foot-eye: needed by a football player
- Hand-hand: needed by a basketball player
Effects of SRF 2
Power is all about using strength at speed, so examples must be of at explosive movement
Reaction time: fast reactions are useful in all events where quick decisions are needed
Speed is useful:
- Where events are won by the quickest time
- In events where power is needed
- To gain an advantage over other opponents
PAR-Q is Physical Activity Readiness- Questionnaire
The PAR-Q is designed to identify any potential health problems that mean physical exercise would not be recommended
A PAR-Q would include questions about:
- personal, physical details eg weight
- family health history eg heart problems
- known health problems eg high blood pressure
- lifestyle eg smoking
A PAR-Q is to assess fitness levels in order to develop an appropriate exercise programme, you need to:
- know the fitness requirements for a selection of different activities
- know the tests that measure each of the components of fitness
- be able to interperate the results of tests
- make reccommendations based on the results
Cooper 12-minute run test: test of Cardiovascular fitness used by long distance runners for endurance activities
Harvard step test: test of Cardiovascular fitness used by long distance runners for endurance activities
Treadmill test: test of Cardiovascular fitness used by long distance runners for endurance activities
Hand grip test: test of muscular strength used by rock climbers
Sit and reach test: test of Flexibility used by gymnasts and hurdlers
Illinois agility run: test of Agility used by basketballer and rugby players
Fitness Tests 2
30-metre sprint: test of Speed used by 100 metre sprinters and rugby players
Sergent jump test: test of Power used my sprinters and rugby players
Standing broad jump: test of Power used my sprinters and rugby players
Hand wall test: test of hand eye Co-ordination used by tennis playes and netball players
Ruler drop test: test of Reaction time used by sprinters or team players
Standing stork test: test of Balance used by gymnasts
Rest and Recovery
Rest is a period of time that is allowed for recovery to take place
Recover is the time required to repair damage to the body caused by training or competition
Making sure that there is enough time between training sessions so that there is time for adaptions to take place, time for any damage to repair and energy stores to replenish.
FITT and Reversibilty
Frequency - how often you train, it should be gradually inceased
Intensity - how hard you train, should be gradually increased
Type - relates to specificity the closer the match between the type of training and the activity the better the improvement in performance
Time - how long you train, should be gradually increased
Reversibility - this means that any improvement or change that takes place as a consequence of training will be reversed when you stop training. just as fitness can be increased through training the benifits will be lost if training stops due to injury or a holiday
Specific - your goal must be clear
Measurable - in order to know that your goal is met succesfully it must be something that can be measured
Achieveable - something that is possible to do
Realistic - one that is possible given all factors involved
Time bound - goals are assigned a time frame for completion
Principles of Training
Progressive overload - gradually increasing the amount of work in training, so that fitness gains occur, but without the potential for injury
Specificty - matching training to the particular requirements of an activity
Individual differences / needs - matching the training to the requirements of the individual person
Rest and Recovery - rest is the period of time that is allowed for recovery to take place. recovery is the time required for the repair of damage to the body caused by traiing or competition
A typical session is made up of:
- Sets of high intensity work
- Followed by rest or low intensity work
- Sets of high intensity work
- Followed by rest or low intensity work
- Aerobic interval training will have the health benefits associated with this type of activity
- It is a very flexible training method that can be used to improve health and fitness in a range of ways
- Although normally associated with powerful and explosive activities it can be adapted to work on cardiovascular fitness be altering the lengths of the rest periods
Forms of interval training these include training on a track, weight and circut training
Each training session must:
- Be preferably for 20mins or longer
- Not involve and breaks duing the session
Components of health releted exercise that would improve with continues training:
- Cadiovascular endurance
- Muscular endurance
Continuous training is aerobic and is used for more aerobic based activities
Aerobic activities are submaximal, this means you do not work flat out so you can continue to work for longer periods
- Is a form of continuous training, its key characteristics are variations in pace and terrain
- Changes of pace allow recovery so a performer can work maximally
- Improves cardiovascular fitness and muscular endurance and reduces the chance of corinary heart disease
Fartlek Training is continuous but changes in pace within the sessions means that performers work both aerobically and anerobically withing the training session
Circuit Training involves a train of different activities that can be selected to suit indavidual or activity requirements
- Can be used to develop all of the componets of fitness depending on the nature of the stations included
- 6 - 12 stations
- The stations are organised in a circuit so that you progress from one station to the next
- The stations can be fitness or skill based
- The varity of stations allows recovery of the muscle groups
- Depending on the intensity of the activity circuit training can be aerobic (low intensity) or aneobic (high intensity)
- The intensity can be measured by; the time at each station, the number of reps, the number of circuits completed
- Aerobic circuit training will have the health benefits associated with this type of activity
- Can be organised so that it is continuous usually done with 30-60 second breaks while leaving one station and getting into position at the next
The key characteristics of Weight Training are:
- A form of interval training using weights
- Involves reps of sets
- Weight provides a resistance or load for the muscles to work against
- Weight training can be used to develop fitness for many activities, the most obvious being those requiring power and strength.
- It can also be used for activities requiring muscular endurance.
The components of fitness developed due to weight training depend on the design of your training session.
Cross Training uses more than one type of training, its characteristics therefore depend on the types of training being used.
Cross Training is useful if you take part in:
- More than one activity
- An activity that is made up of different types of events
It can be used to:
- Improve all round fitness
- Add variety to training and therefore be motivated to continue
The Circulatory System
Humans have a double circulatory system. This means the first one pumps de-oxygenated blood to the lungs to take oxygen in, while the second one pumps oxygenated blood around the body.
Blood flow through the heart
- The right atrium of the heart receives de-oxygenated blood from the body (through the vena cava).
- The de-oxygenated blood moves through to the right ventricle, which pumps it to the lungs (via the pulmonary artery).
- The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs (through the pulmonary vein).
- The oxygenated blood then moves through to the left ventricle, which pumps it out round the whole body (via the aorta).
- The left ventricle has a much thicker wall than the right ventricle. It needs more muscle because it has to pump blood around the whole body, whereas the right ventricle only had to pump it to the lungs.
- The semi-lunar, tricuspid and bicuspid valves prevent the backflow of blood. Veins also have valves to prevent the backflow of blood.
Vascontriction and Vasodilation
Vasconstriction means the blood vessels are constricted to make them smaller sent to inactive areas whilst exercising
Vasodilation means that the blood vessels are dilated to make them bigger sent to active areas whilst exercising
Blood Pressure and Cholesterol
Blood Pressure: is the force of the blood pushing against the blood vessel wall as it travels around the body
Systolic blood pressure: is the pressure in the arteries whilst the heart is contracting
Diastolic blood pressure: is the pressure in the arteries whilst the heart is relaxing and filling with blood
Diastolic blood pressure is lower than systolic blood pressure because the blood flow is slower whilst the heart is relaxing. If the blood pressure is too high it can put a strain on your arteries and heart.
High Cholesterol - can be caused by having a diet with to much saturated fat
There are two types of cholesterol:
- Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) is the 'bad' cholesterol that can cause deposits to build up in the arteries. this makes it harder for the blood to circulate and can lead to heat disease
- High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) is the 'good' cholesterol that can take away cholesterol to be broken down
The Skeletal System
The skeleton supports the body, allows it to move and protects vital organs.
Joints allow the bones to move:
- The bones at a joint are held together by ligaments (they have tensile strength, but are also slightly elastic).
- The ends of bones are covered with a smooth layer of cartilage to stop the bones rubbing together (cartilage can be slightly compressed so it acts as a shock absorber).
- Membranes at some joints release oily synovial fluid to lubricate the joints, allowing them to move more easily.
- Hinge joints located at the knee and elbow allow flexion and extension
- Ball and Socket joints located at the hip and shoulder allow flexion, extension, rotation, adduction and abduction
The Skeletal System 2
Muscles pull on bones to move them
- Muscles are attached to bones by tendons. Tendons can't stretch much so when a muscle contracts it pulls on the bone.
- Muscles can't push on bones to move a joint. This is why muscles usually come in pairs (called antagonistic pairs).
- The muscles move in opposite directions.
Bone density and diet
Bone density is a measurement of the mineral content of the bone - the greater the bone density, the stronger the bone.
Bone density can be improved through a balanced diet containing:
- The mineral calcium - found in many foods including milk and green vegetables
- Vitamin D - found in eggs and oily fish. Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium
The Skeletal System and Exercise
Effects of exercise on the skeletal system
Increased bone density / stronger bones
- Reduced chance of osteoporosis
- Better posture
- Reduced chance of fractures
Stronger ligaments and tendons
- Better support of joints, therefore more stability during physical activity
- Regular exercise also increases the production of synovial fluid. this increases lubrication of the joints, aiding flexibility
Range of Movement at joints
Flexion is the term given when the angle at a joint decreases, this happens when the bones forming the joint move closer together
Extension is the term given when the angle at a joint increases, this happens when the bones forming the joing move away from each other
Rotation is when the bone at a joint moves around its own axis, so making a circular movement and allows for the biggest range of movement
Abduction is the movement of a limb away from the midline of the body
Adduction is the movement of a limb towards the midline of the body
Training within your target zone
- To maximise the chance of fitness adaptions taking place, you should train within your target zone
- The area of the target zone you aim to work within depends upon the intnesity of your activity or the aim of your training programme
- If your activity has lots of high intensity work, aim to work nearer to the upper threshold of your target zone
- Your anaerobic zone is 80-90% of your max heart rate (MHR)
- If your activity is mainly low intensity or you wish to use fat as an energy source, you should aim to work nearer to the lower threshold of your target zone
- Your aerobic training zone is 60-80% of your max heart rate (MHR)
- 220 - your age
- Then calculate 80% and 60% of your MHR
- Then you will have two heart rate figues: 80% is the upper threshold of your aerobic training and 60% is the lower thresholf of your aerobic trsining zone
Cardiovascular System and Exercise 1
The cardiovascular system is:
- The heart
- The blood vessels
- The blood
- Heart rate - the number of times the heart beats per minute
- Stroke volume - the amount of blood leaving the heart each beat
- Systolic blood pressure - the pressure when blood is being pumped out of the heart
Role of the cardiovascular system - the role of the cardiovascular system during exercise is to:
- Transport oxygen in the blood to the working muscles
- Remove waste products
- Return the blood to the lungs for oxygenation
Immediate effects of exercise on the cardiovascula
Immediate effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system:
- Increase in heart rate
- Increase in stroke volume
- Increase in systolic blood pressure
- Increased oxygen delivery and increased removal of carbon dioxide
- Increased rate of blood flow and therefore icreased oxygen delivery
Immediate effects of exercise on the Respiratory S
Immediate effects of exercise on the respiratory system:
- Increase in breathing rate
- Increase in depth of breathing
- Increase in removal of carbon dioxide
- Increase in the amout of oxygen taken into the lungs in each breath
Long term effects of exercise on the Respiratory S
Long term effects of exercise on the respiratory system:
- Increased number of alveoli
- Increased strength of intercostal muscles
- Increased strength of the diaphragm
- Increased lung volume
- Respiratory system is stronger
- Can take in more air and extract oxygen more effectively
- Can provide more oxygen for transpot to the working muscles
Respiratory System and Exercise
Oxygen Debt is the extra amount of oxygen required after anaerobic exercise, compared with the amount normally needed when at rest.
Total Lung Capacity (TLC) - the total volume of air in your lungs after your biggest breath in
Tidal Volume (TV) - during normal breathing, the total amount breathed in and out in one cycle
Vital Capacity (VC) - the maximum you can forcibly breathe in and out
Breathed In -
- Oxygen - 21%
- Carbon Dioxide - 0.03%
Breathed Out -
- Oxygen - 16%
- Carbon Dioxide - 4%
Mesomorph - Key characteristics are:
- low levels of fat
- builds muscle easily
- solid build
- wide shoulders
- narrow hips
Ectomorph - Key characteristics are:
- long thin frame
- narrow shoulders and hips
- slim build
- generally does not build muscle easily
- generally does ot store fat easily
Endomorph - Key characteristics are:
- wide hips
- narow shoulders
- has a tendancy to store fat
Overweight, Overfat and Obese 1
- The term overweight means that you weigh more than the expected weight for your height and sex
- You can be over weight while not being over fat
- Being overweight is not in itself harmful - unless it is accompanied by also being overfat
- The term overfat means that you hasve more body fat than you should have if the level of fat in the body is excessive it can lead to health problems
Overweight, Overfat and Obese 2
- The term used to describe people who are very over fat
- The body fat has increased to a level to a level that is seriously unhealthy not just being a few pounds over weight
High levels of excess fat can lead to:
- Mobility issues / lack of flexibilty
- Additional stress on bones and joints
- Heart disease
- Type 2 diabetes
- Depression due to low self esteem
Anabolic Steroids have the same chemical structure as the male hormone testosterone. It's produced naturally by the body but performers increase the amount by taking them.
Reasons to take anabolic steroids:
- To allow them to train harder for longer so increasing power and strength
- To speed up recovery/pressures from others
- Increase their chances of winning/protienesynthesis to develop lean muscle mass
Health Risk and Cheating: There are alot of good reasons to not take performance enhancing drug. Using performing enhancing drugs is cheating.
There are also significant health risks including:
- Liver damage, CHD
- Testicular atropthy which leads to a decrease in sperm count
- Sink problems including acne/Premature baldness
- Mood swings including increased aggression
Beta Blockers: are designed to treat problems associated with heart problems. they work by blocking the effects of adrenalin so helping slow down the heart rate
Reasons peformers might take beta blockers:
- They have a cakming effect
- They reduce muscle tremmor or shaking
- They increase the chances of winning
- They allow the performer to remain in control
- They reduce the performers anxiety
Health risks associated with beta blockers:
- Slowing heart rate
- Lowering blood pressure
- Sleep disturbance leading to tiredness
Duiretics: are drugs that increases the rate of urination, so increasing the amount of fluid the body loses.
Unlike other performance-enhancing drugs, diuretics are not banned because they directly enhance performance.
Other potential benefits
- To achieve quick weight loss (due to loss of fluid from the body)
- To mask or hide other performance-enhancing substances the performer may have taken, making them harder to detect
Health risks associated with diuretics - reported side effects of diuretics include:
- Nausea, Headaches
- Heart / Kidney failure
Narcotic Analgesics: were designed to relieve pain temporarily.
They act on the brain and spinal cord to dampen the effect of painful stimuli, masking pain.
- They give a sense of euphoria
- They increase the performers pain threshold
- They give a sense of being invincible
- They mask injuries so the performer can continue to compete
Health risk associated with nacotic analgesics - reported side effects include:
- Nausea / Sickness
- Anxiety / Depression
- Kidney / Liver Damage
- Concentration Loss
- Further damage to injury (due to masking of pain)
Stimulants: are a category of drugs that temporarily elevate mood. they increase brain activity, making an individual feel more awake and alert, and as if they have moe energy. the taking of stimulants in large enough quantities constitutes the use of performance-enhancing drugs and is therefore banned
- To increase alertness (mental and physical ) so the performer is quicker to respond
- To reduce tiredness
- To increase heart rate (and therefore oxygen delivery)
- To incease competitiveness
- To incease levels of aggression
Health risks asociated with stimulants - reported side-effects of stimulants include:
- Heart Rate irregularities
Peptide Hormones are found naturally in the human body. They increase muscle growth and increase the red blood cell count
Peptide Hormones are:
- Human growth hormone (HGH)
- Erythropoietin (EPO)
Reasons performers might take peptide hormones:
- HGH - can help increase muscle mass and therefore strength
- EPO - can help increase red blood cell production and therefore incease oxygen delivery to working muscles
Health risks associated with peptide hormones
Health risks associated with peptide hormones - reported side effects of peptide hormones include:
- arthritis / heart failue / diabetes
- abnormal growth in feet and hands
- increased thickness of the blood (blood clots/strokes/deep vein thrombosis
- increased risk of the heart
Recreational Drugs 1
Recreational Drugs: are those taken for enjoyment rather than to enhance performance. they can be addictive and certainly damage health. The most commonly used receational drugs are alcohol and nicotine.
Negative effects on health
- Heart failure
- Increased blood pressure
- Increased weight
- Live disease / cancer
- Heart disease / angina
- Blood clots
- Lung cancer
Recreational Drugs 2
Negative effects on performance
- Leads to slower reaction times
- Makes the drinker less mobile due to excess weight
- Causes loss of coordination
- Causes loss of concentration
- Causes breathlessness
- Reduces oxygen-carrying capacity
These effects will have a negative impact on performance in all aerobic or endurance-based activities
Antagonistic Muscle Pairs
Antagonistic Pairs - while one muscle contracts, another relaxes to creata movement.
- The muscle contracting is the agonist (prime mover)
- The muscle relaxing is the antagonist
Muscles are connected to bones by tendons. when the muscles contract, they pull on the tendon which pull on the bone creating movement.
Fracture - happen when the frce on the bone is stronger than the bone itself. different types of factures that can occur:
- Compound, or open fractures, are where the broken bone causes th eskin to break, adding an additional complication of possible infection
- Simple, or closed fractures, are where the bone does not break the skin
- Greenstick fractures are common in younger children. this is where the bone bends on one side and breaks on the other
- Stress fractures are injuries commonly caused through over-use. this is where a small crack forms in the bone
Tennis elbow - a joint injury where the tendons are inflamed. pain is felt on the outside of the elbow
Golfers elbow - a joint injury where the tendons are inflamed. pain is felt on the inside of the elbow
Potential Injuries 2
Dislocation - where one of the bones at a joint comes out of place.
Torn cartilage - a joint injury where small tears appear in the cartilage that acts as a cushion at the end of the bones
Sprain - a joint injury where some of the fibres of the ligament are torn. it happens when the joint goes through a greater range of movement than normal, tearing some of the fibres
Strain - a muscle or tendon injury. In a strain, a muscle or tendon is stretched or torn.
Reducing risk through Personal Readiness
- Complete PAR-Q to identify any potential health risks and limit participation accordingly
- Allow recovery time to prevent over-use injury
- Warm up to prevent injury
- Use the correct clothing, protective clothing for sports
- Apply the rules of the game correctly
Reducing risk through other measures
- Make sure competition is balanced set age groups
- Check the equipment
- Check the facilities
Macronutrients and Micronutrients
Macronutrients are needed in our diet in large quantities. they are needed for energy, growth and repair. there are three main types of macronutrients:
- Carbohydrates - provide us with energy for use in aerobic and anaerobic activity
- Fats - provide us with energy but should be eaten in moderation as it is easily stored in the body and can lead to weight gain
- Proteins - can produce energy but this is not their main function, may be sed by performers to aid muscle growth (hypertrophy)
Micronutrients are needed in our diet in small quantities. they are needed to maintain good health, there ate two types of micronutrients:
- Water and Fibre are not nutrients, but they are still essential components of a balanced diet
- Water prevents dehydration and is is most liquids and many foods
- Fibre aids the digestive system and is found in foods such as cereals, vegetables and nuts
Health, Fitness and Exercise
Health - a state of complete mental, physical and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity
Fitness - the ability to meet the demands of the environment
Exercise - a form of physical activity done to maintain or improve health and / or physical fitness, it is not competitive sport
Cardiovascular System and Exercise 2
Long term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system:
- Lower resting heart rate
- Increased maximum cardiac output during exercise
- Faster return to resting heart rate
- Increased capillarisation (the development of a capillary network)
- Increased number of red blood cells
- Increased blood flow supplying oxygen to working muscles
- More efficient recovery
- Greater training zone: with an increased stroke volume, the heart beats less often to eject the same amount of blood