PE 2 - Definitions

PE 2

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GOAL SETTING

Specific

Measurable

Agreed

Realistic

Time phased

Exciting

Recorded

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FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETON

1. SHAPE 

2. SUPPORTS muscles

3. MOVEMENT - attach to bones 

4. PROTECTION of delicate parts

5. BLOOD CELL PROTECTION 

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TYPES OF BONES

1. LONG BONES - long shaft, movement e.g. femur , humerus 

2. FLAT BONES - protection e.g. cranium 

     -  muscle attachment e.g. muscles in back to pelvis

3. SHORT BONES - light and strong e.g. carpels 

                                  - movement in lots of directions

4. IRREGULAR BONES - specially shaped e.g. patella and vertebrae

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CARTILAGE

Forms cushion between bones to stop them rubbing 

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VERTEBRAL COLLUMN

Cervical Veterbrae (7)

-

Thoracic Vertebrae (12)

-

Lumbar Vertebrae (5)

-

Sacrum (5)

-

Coccyx (4)

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TYPES OF JOINTS

1. IMMOVABLE/ FIXED/ FIBROUS - held together by tough fibre e.g. joints between plates of cranium

2. SLIGHTLY MOVEABLE/ CARTILAGINOUS - helt together by ligament and joined by cartilage

3. FREELY MOVEABLE / SYNOVIAL

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SYNOVIAL JOINTS

1. BALL AND SOCKET - all direction e.g. shoulders and hips

2. PIVOT - rotation e.g. joint between atlas and axis

3. HINGE - only forward and backward movement e.g. knee and elbow

4. GLIDING - two flat bones and slide over e.g joints between carpels and tarsals

5. CONDYLOID - allow forward and bwd, left and eright movement e.g. metacarpals and phalanges. 

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EXTENSION

Straightening of a body part increasing angle3 at the joint

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FLEXION

Bending a part of the body decreasing angle at the joint

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ADDUCTION

Sideways movement of a limb towards a midline of the body

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ABDUCTION

Sideways movement of a limb away from the midline of the body

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ROTATION

Joints move in a circular motion 

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PLANTAR FLEXION

Action of moving up onto toes or pointing toes

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DORSI FLEXION

Action of pulling up toes towards the body

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ORIGIN

Where the muscle join the stationary bone

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INSERTION

Where the muscle joins the moving bone

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TENDONS

The fibres of tendons are embedded in the periosteum. A flexible but inelasticcord of strong fibrous collagen tissue attaching a muscle to a bone.

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ISOTONIC CONTRACTIONS

Produces movement, the contracting muscle shortens and produce both speed and power

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ISOMETRIC CONTRACTIONS

Does not create movement, muscles neither shorten or lengthen, produce static strength to hold body in a particular position. 

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STROKE VOLUME

Is the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle per beat

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CARDIAC OUTPUT

Is the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle per minute

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TIDAL VOLUME

Amount of air breathed in or out with each out

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RESPIRATORY RATE

How many breathes take in a minute

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VITAL CAPACITY

maximum amount of air you can breathe out after breathing as deeply as you can

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HEALTH

Defined as a state of complete mental, physical and social well being

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PHYSICALLY WELL

Heart lungs and other body systems are working properly. Free from injuries and illnesses

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MENTALLY WELL

Able to cope with stress and control your emotions. Feel positive about yourself

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SOCIALLY WELL

Have friendship and support. Feel as though have value to society. Have essential human needs, clothing and shelter. 

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FITNESS

The ability to meet the demands of the environment

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EXERCISE

A form of physical activity done primarily to improve health and physical well being. 

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HEALTH RELATED FITNESS

Body Composition

Muscular strength

Muscular endurance

Flexibility

Cardiovascular fitness

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SKILL RELATED FITNESS

Coordination

Reaction time

Agility

Balance

Speed

Power

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SPECIFICITY

Your training should be geared specifically towards your chosen sport or activity

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PROGRESSIVE OVERLOAD

Involves working the body harder than normal and gradually increasing the amount of exercise you do. Makes the body adapt to the training levels and therefore getting fitter

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FITT PRINCIPLE

Frequency - how often

Intensity - how hard

Time - how long

Type - what type of training

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PHYSIQUE

The form size and development of a person's body

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OVERWEIGHT

A person who is significantly heavier than their optimum weight

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OVER - FAT

An abnormally large percentage of their body is composed of fat

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OBESITY

People who are extremely over fat

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UNDERWEIGHT

10% under the optimum weight.

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ANOREXIA

Excessive weight loss can lead to a dissorder called anorezia nervose Individuals do not eat because they see themselves as fat. Theiur mindset means that they dramatically reduce their food intake

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SOMATOTYPES

Is a method of determining an individuals body shape. 

Endomorph (fat)

Mesomorph (muscular)

Ectomorph (thin)

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INTERVAL TRAINING

Involves periods of work followed by periods of rest

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CONTINUOUS TRAINING

Involves a steady but regular pace i.e. jogging. Important to maintain threshhold in the training threshold. 

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FARTLEK TRAINING

Involves changes in intensity without stopping.

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CIRCUIT TRAINING

Is a series of exercises completed one after another. Good way of developing general fitness

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WEIGHT TRAINIING

Use progressive resistance against a muscle group

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CROSS TRAINING

Using different training methods to enhance fitness levels

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DRUGS

Any chemical introduced to the body which affects how the body works

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BANNED DRUGS

Beta blockers

Anabolic steroids

Narcotic analgesics

Diuretics

Stimulants

Peptide hormones

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SPRAIN

When a ligament at a joint get stretched or torn. 

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STRAINED OR PULLED MUSCLES

A tear in the muscle or its tendon caused by violent over-stretching

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SPORT

An individual or group acitvity pursued for exercise or pleasure often involving the testing of physical capabilities and taking the form of a competetiitivegame weith rules

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LEISURE

is the free time that you can use to do what you want

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RECREATION

Something you do in your leisure time to relax or be active

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SPONSORSHIP

The provision of money to individuals, teams, events and organisations to gain recognition and increased income. 

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MEDIA POSITIVES

Money

Education

David Beckham

Inspiration

Aid

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MEDIA NEGATIVES

Bias

Lack of attendence

Overload

Open season - stars hounded by media

Demands 

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