FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETON
2. SUPPORTS muscles
3. MOVEMENT - attach to bones
4. PROTECTION of delicate parts
5. BLOOD CELL PROTECTION
TYPES OF BONES
1. LONG BONES - long shaft, movement e.g. femur , humerus
2. FLAT BONES - protection e.g. cranium
- muscle attachment e.g. muscles in back to pelvis
3. SHORT BONES - light and strong e.g. carpels
- movement in lots of directions
4. IRREGULAR BONES - specially shaped e.g. patella and vertebrae
Forms cushion between bones to stop them rubbing
Cervical Veterbrae (7)
Thoracic Vertebrae (12)
Lumbar Vertebrae (5)
TYPES OF JOINTS
1. IMMOVABLE/ FIXED/ FIBROUS - held together by tough fibre e.g. joints between plates of cranium
2. SLIGHTLY MOVEABLE/ CARTILAGINOUS - helt together by ligament and joined by cartilage
3. FREELY MOVEABLE / SYNOVIAL
1. BALL AND SOCKET - all direction e.g. shoulders and hips
2. PIVOT - rotation e.g. joint between atlas and axis
3. HINGE - only forward and backward movement e.g. knee and elbow
4. GLIDING - two flat bones and slide over e.g joints between carpels and tarsals
5. CONDYLOID - allow forward and bwd, left and eright movement e.g. metacarpals and phalanges.
Straightening of a body part increasing angle3 at the joint
Bending a part of the body decreasing angle at the joint
Sideways movement of a limb towards a midline of the body
Sideways movement of a limb away from the midline of the body
Joints move in a circular motion
Action of moving up onto toes or pointing toes
Action of pulling up toes towards the body
Where the muscle join the stationary bone
Where the muscle joins the moving bone
The fibres of tendons are embedded in the periosteum. A flexible but inelasticcord of strong fibrous collagen tissue attaching a muscle to a bone.
Produces movement, the contracting muscle shortens and produce both speed and power
Does not create movement, muscles neither shorten or lengthen, produce static strength to hold body in a particular position.
Is the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle per beat
Is the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle per minute
Amount of air breathed in or out with each out
How many breathes take in a minute
maximum amount of air you can breathe out after breathing as deeply as you can
Defined as a state of complete mental, physical and social well being
Heart lungs and other body systems are working properly. Free from injuries and illnesses
Able to cope with stress and control your emotions. Feel positive about yourself
Have friendship and support. Feel as though have value to society. Have essential human needs, clothing and shelter.
The ability to meet the demands of the environment
A form of physical activity done primarily to improve health and physical well being.
HEALTH RELATED FITNESS
SKILL RELATED FITNESS
Your training should be geared specifically towards your chosen sport or activity
Involves working the body harder than normal and gradually increasing the amount of exercise you do. Makes the body adapt to the training levels and therefore getting fitter
Frequency - how often
Intensity - how hard
Time - how long
Type - what type of training
The form size and development of a person's body
A person who is significantly heavier than their optimum weight
OVER - FAT
An abnormally large percentage of their body is composed of fat
People who are extremely over fat
10% under the optimum weight.
Excessive weight loss can lead to a dissorder called anorezia nervose Individuals do not eat because they see themselves as fat. Theiur mindset means that they dramatically reduce their food intake
Is a method of determining an individuals body shape.
Involves periods of work followed by periods of rest
Involves a steady but regular pace i.e. jogging. Important to maintain threshhold in the training threshold.
Involves changes in intensity without stopping.
Is a series of exercises completed one after another. Good way of developing general fitness
Use progressive resistance against a muscle group
Using different training methods to enhance fitness levels
Any chemical introduced to the body which affects how the body works
When a ligament at a joint get stretched or torn.
STRAINED OR PULLED MUSCLES
A tear in the muscle or its tendon caused by violent over-stretching
An individual or group acitvity pursued for exercise or pleasure often involving the testing of physical capabilities and taking the form of a competetiitivegame weith rules
is the free time that you can use to do what you want
Something you do in your leisure time to relax or be active
The provision of money to individuals, teams, events and organisations to gain recognition and increased income.
Lack of attendence
Open season - stars hounded by media