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Health is defined as a state of complete mental, physical and social well-being; not merely the absence of illness or infirmity.

Fitness is the ability to meet the demands of the environment.

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Mental benefits include:

Physical benefits include:

  • losing weight
  • improved posture
  • improved body shape

Social benefits include:

  • meeting people
  • making friends
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WHY (cont.)

Being a member of a sports club and regularly participating in sport will develop personal qualities from:

  • Co-operation – working with others.
  • Competition – testing yourself against others.
  • Physical challenge – testing yourself against the environment or your best performances.
  • Aesthetic appreciation – recognizing quality of movement in a performance.
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Health related fitness

  • Health related exercise improves the health related fitness factors which are also useful to sportspeople. These are:
  • Cardiovascular fitness is the ability to exercise the whole body for long periods of time and is sometimes called stamina.
  • Muscular strength is the amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance. It helps sportspeople to hit, tackle and throw.
  • Muscular endurance is the ability to use voluntary muscles many times without becoming tired. It helps sportspeople to sprint or repeat quick actions for longer.
  • Flexibility is the range of movement possible at a joint. It helps performers to stretch and reach further.
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Skill related

Skill related fitness factors are essential for success in sport.

  • Agility - the ability to change the position of the body quickly and with control. This helps team players dodge their opponents.
  • Balance - the ability to retain the centre of mass above the base of support when stationary (static balance) or moving (dynamic balance). This helps gymnasts maintain their position and prevents games players from falling over at speed.
  • Co-ordination - the ability to use two or more body parts together. This helps all athletes to move smoothly and quickly especially when also having to control a ball.
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A successful training programme will meet individual needs which are personal fitness needs based on age, gender, fitness level and the sport for which we are training. A successful training programme will also include exercise in the correct heart-rate target zone.

  • Specificity – training must be matched to the needs of the sporting activity to improve fitness in the body parts the sport uses.
  • Overload - fitness can only be improved by training more than you normally do. You must work hard.
  • Progression – start slowly and gradually increase the amount of exercise and keep overloading.
  • Reversibility – if you dont use it you lose it!
  • Tedium dont make it boring!!
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In planning a programme, use the FITT principles to add the detail:

  • Frequency - decide how often to train.
  • Intensity - choose how hard to train.
  • Time - decide for how long to train.
  • Type - decide which methods of training to use.

You should also consider the principle of moderation. It is important to have rest periods which allow the body to adapt. Too much training (overtraining) can lead to injury.

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training methods

Specific training methods can be used to improve each fitness factor.

  • Circuit training involves performing a series of exercises in a special order called a circuit. Each activity takes place at a 'station'. It can be designed to improve speed, agility, coordination, balance and muscular endurance.
  • Continuous training involves working for a sustained period of time without rest. It improves cardio-vascular fitness.
  • Cross training involves using another sport or activity to improve your fitness. It happens when an athlete trains in a different environment. e.g a volleyball player uses thepower training for that sport to help with fitness for long jump.

    Weight training  ( training improves muscular strength, endurance and power

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oxygen dept = When working anaerobically you create an oxygen debt and can only keep going for a short time. Oxygen debt is the amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above that which would normally be consumed during rest. This results from a shortfall of available oxygen during exercise.

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training session

1. Warm-up

  • Whole body exercise to raise heart rate and body temperature.
  • Stretching to prepare muscles, ligaments and joints.
  • Practising skills and techniques to be used in the session.

2. Main activity - this could be:

  • Fitness training - which may be linked to repeated technique work.
  • Skill development - drills or team practices.
  • Modified or Conditioned Games.

3. Warm down (sometimes called cool down)

  • Gentle stretching to prevent muscle soreness and stiffness later.
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Elements of personal hygiene

Hygiene is the way we take care of ourselves to stay healthy: showering after sport, trimming our nails, and changing into clean clothes regularly. Good personal hygiene is an important part of a sportsperson’s routine. It helps to prevent infection which can otherwise affect performance.Two common sports-related infections are:

Athlete's FootThis is a fungal infection.

Verrucaecaused by a virus and are usually warts on the sole of the foot.

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Body types (

  • Ectomorphs - narrow-shaped body, are thin faced, with little fat or muscle. This is the ideal body type for long-distance runners
  • Mesomorphs - wedge-shaped body, wide shoulders, narrow hips, muscular. Ideal body type for sprinters.
  • Endomorphs - pear-shaped body, wide hips, wide shoulders, can have a lot fat on body, arms and thighs. When fit, ideal body type for weightlifting, wrestling.

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training methods 2

  • Fartlek training or 'speed play' training involves varying your speed and the type of terrain over which you run, walk, cycle or ski. It improves aerobic and anaerobic fitness.
  • Interval training involves alternating between periods of hard exercise and rest. It improves speed and muscular endurance.
  • Weight training uses weights to provide resistance to the muscles. It improves muscular strength (high weight, low reps), muscular endurance (low weight, high reps, many sets) and power (medium weight and reps performed quickly)
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health related cont.

  • Body composition is the percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle or bone. It helps sportspeople depending on the type of sport they play, eg heavy rugby players are more effective in the scrum than lightweight players, but light long distance runners will always beat heavyweights.
  • Speed is the differential rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time or how quickly an individual can move. This helps all games players to move into position or get away from opponents quickly.
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skill related 2

  • Power - the ability to use strength at speed. This helps athletes to jump high, throw far or sprint quickly. Power = Strength x Speed.
  • Reaction time - the time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of a movement. This helps swimmers to make a fast start.
  • NB If you are studying Edexcel, you should list speed as a skill related fitness factor.
  • Speed is the differential rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time or how quickly an individual can move. This helps all games players to move into position or get away from opponents quickly.

A rugby player dodges an opponent ( players use agility to dodge opponents

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