PE - Sport, society and culture



The commercialisation of sport means managing sport in a way designed to make profit - mostly through sponsorhip and the media.

Sponsorship is the provision of money, equipment, clothing/footwear  or facilities to an individual, team or event in return for some financial gain.

The media pay so they can cover the sport, which means people will buy their newspaper or watch their TV show.

Broadcasting sports on TV and the internet means it now reaches an even larger, global audience - this is known as the globalisation of sport. 

Social madia gives fans new ways to see their favourite sportts stars and further promotes sponsors.

Sport the media and sponsorship are all connected.

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Sponsorship and Sport

Sponsorship deals mean companies can associate their name with the prestige of successful sportspeople and teams. This is an effective form of advertisi, which helps the sponsor to make more money.

These deals mean big money for sport - which can be spent on development e.g. new stadium or facilities.

Sponsorship money also means plaers and officials can be paid good wages, and players can train full time. This benefits everyone, because hey will perform better.

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Sponsorship and Media

The more media coverage a sport gets, the more peple watch it.

This makes sponsorship more valuable, as it can reach a larger audience.

This increases the lielihood of sponnsorship and means the sport and players can demand more money for their sponsorship deals.

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The Media and Sport

The media pay for the right to cover sporting events, which provides investment for sports to develop at lower levels.

Media coverage makes more people aare of the sport, so more people may play it or watch it.

Media coverage of elite players and athletes can create role models who inspire people to play.

This can make players into superstars.  But the downside is that players are hounded by the media and their private lives are all over the news.

The media can hold so much power over sport that they'll change things: when the games are played and the rules.

Being able to watch TV or the Internet, rather than going to the game, can save fans money. But stadiums lose money and there is a poorer atmosphere for the spectators.

The media's analysis of refereeing decisions puts sports officials under a lot of pressure.

Media analysis of games can also educate spectators, so they understand the sport better.

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Negatives of Sponsorship

Usually, the money is only available for the top players and teams, so only benefits the elite.

If a athete becomes injured, loses their form or gets a bad reputation they could lose their sponsorship deal.

Smetimes athletes have to fulfil contracts with their sponsor e.g. turn up at special events, do TV adverts.

Athletes can get into trouble with their sposor if they're spotted using another company's products.

{If a team is reliant on sponsorship money, this gives the sponsor power and could influence their playing style or team selection.

In some sports where there are breaks in play, adverts will be shown. The game won't be allowed to restart until the advert break is finished, which can be boring for spectators.

Some sponsors are innopropiate as they advertise alcohol and fat foot which is promoting an unheathy lifestyle to viewers especially children. Promoting cigarettes and tobacco at sport games is illegal in the EU

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Technology benefiting Players

New materials are used to make sports equipment and clothes more effective. This helps players reach new evls of performance.

Improvements to training facilities, like all weather pitches, mean that training doesn't depend on good weather. This means more time is spent training, so performances will improve.

Medical technology can help athletes recover from injuries faster e.g. cyrogenic chambers.

Video-footage and 3D modelling software can be used by coaches to analyse an athlete's movement meaning that an athllete's movement can be finetuned.

However, this technology is expensive so only the best teams with lot's of money can benefit from this.

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Technology Aiding Decisions during Matches


  • Hawkeye - tennis. To help decide whether shots were in or out.
  • Goal line technology - football. To decide if the ball passed the goal line.
  • Television Match Official - rugby. An extra official who watches video replays to help referees make key decisions.


  • Makes sport more fair - avoids frustration of wrong decisions.
  • They help officials to make valid and reliable decisions - lessening the decisions
  • Shows referees are right most of the time - increases respect.
  • Sponsors can use these breaks in plays, used to replay footage, to show adverts.


  • Undermines referees authority
  • Very expensive
  • Replays take a long time which can disrupt game flow.
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Sportsmanship means playing within the rule, upholding the spirit of the game and using sport etiquette.

The contract to compete is  an agreement between competitors to comply with all the rules (both written and unwritten).

It also means observing the etiquette of an activity (the unwritten rules and convention):

  • Shaking hands and congratulating opponents after matches regardless of outcome.
  • In football kicking the ball out of play if an opponent is injured.
  • Being honest - admitting a foul even if the referee allows it.
  • In cycling, if someone has mechanical problems the other cyclists will not take advantage by speeding up until the problem  is fixed.
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Gamesmanship is gainning advantage by using tactics that push the rules but do not break them.

  • Time-wasting in football is when players deliberately mess about when they are winning.
  • In tennis making loud grunting noises when hitting shots to intimidate or distract their opponent.
  • In basketball, a manager may call a three shot just as the opposition win a free throw to make them over think the shot.

Gamesmanship dos not usually result in punishment for the players, although if it is taken too far referees may get involved.

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Performance Enhancing Drugs - Part 1

Beta blockers

Reduce heart rate, muscle tension, blood presser and the effect of adrenaline. This steadies shaking hands, which improves fine moor skills.

They can cause nausea, weakness, cramp and heart failure.


Increase the amount you urinate, causing weight loss - which is benificial if competing in a certain weight division e.g. judo.

They can cause cramp, dehydration, loss of salts, muscle weakness and heart damage.

Narcotic Analgesics:

Kill pain so injuries and fatigue do not affect training and performance.

They're addictive, can causee constipation and low blood pressure. Feeling less pain can cause overtraining.

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Performance Enhancing Drugs - Part 2


Affect the central nervous systam. They can increase mental and physical alertness.

They can lead to high blood pressure, heart and liver problems, and strokes. They're very addictive.

Anabolic Steroids:

Mimic the male sex hormone testosterone which increases bone and muscle growth. Helps faster recovery from exercise.

Cause hig blood pressure, heart disease and infertility and can increase the risk of developing cancer.

Peptide Hormones - EPO

EPO is a hormone that causes the body to produce more red blood cells increasing endurance.

They can cause strokes, heart problems, abnormal growth and diabetes.

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Blood Doping

Blood doping increases the number of red blood cells in the blood stream. This increases oxygen supply to the muscles and improves performance and endurance.

The increase in cardiovascular endurance can benefit athletes such as long distance runners and cyclists.

One method of blood doping involves removing soome blood from an athlete several weeks before a competition. The blood is then reinjected before the competition.

Possible side effects of injecting red blood cells include blood thickening, infections, increased risk of heart attack and blocked blood vessels.

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Hooliganism is rowdy,  aggressive and sometimes violent behaviour of fans and spectators of sport.


  • Rivalries between fans.
  • Alcohol and drugs can cause agression and violence.
  • Frustration with decisions made by officials or anger of how the match is going.
  • Can be caused by peer pressure.


  • Kick offs can be made earlier so there is less time between pubs opening and the game starting . This means that fans are less drunk. Alcohol restrictions are often brought into control.
  • Making every stadium all seated so fans don't have to stand.  It's easier for stewards and police to get to troublemakers.
  • Fans can be segregated to stop fighting inside the ground.
  • Number of police and stewads increased - butthis is extra expense. Video survellience.
  • Past hooligans have bans and sometimes passports revoked.
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