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health related fitness

components of health related fitness

  • cardio-vascular endurance: the ability to exercise for a prolonged period of time

  • muscular strength: the amount of force a muscle can exert in one single contraction

  • muscular endurance: the ability of the muscle to relax and contract repeatedly over time without getting tired

  • flexibility: the range of movement in a joint

  • body composition: the percentage of body weight that is fat, muscle and bone

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skill related fitness

components of skill related fitness

  • agility: being able to change your direction and the speed at which you are travelling, quickly and efficiently

  • coordination: the ability to use the body parts and senses together to produce smooth efficient movements

  • reaction time: how quickly you brain can respond to a stimulus and initiate a response

  • speed: the ability to move a body part quickly

  • power: the product of strength and speed. when we perform a task as quickly and as forcefully as we can

  • balance: the ability to maintain equilibrium whilst stationary or moving. balance whilst moving is often called dynamic balance

  • timing: the ability to correctly time your movement is response to external factors
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ectomorph: little body, low fat percentage, long limbs, narrow chest, shoulders, hips // example: sprinters

endomorph: large body, wide hips, pear shaped, high percentage of body fat // example: sumo wrestlers

mesomorph: muscular, wide shoulders, low percentage of body fat, narrow hips // example: weight lifters

hybrid: two body types combined // example: swimmers

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training [1]

types of training

  • isotonic: moving

  • isometric: no movement

principles of training

  • specificity; training must be specific to each sport or activity that the performer is doing. for example, a footballer should practice shooting skills, not swimming.

  • progression; gradually increasing the difficulty (intensity) of training. for example, a long distance runner would increase the distance they would run each time or they would increase the frequency of training.

  • overload; pushing your body past its limit to increase performance.

  • reversibility; when the training gains you have made are lost from lack of training.

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training [2]

FITT principles

  • frequency

  • intensity

  • time

  • type

training thresholds

  • 220-age = maximum heart rate

  • 60% max. heart rate is aerobic training

  • 90% max. heart rate is anaerobic

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training [3]

aerobic training effects

  • hypertrophy of the heart and lungs

  • more capillaries grow // higher gas exchange

  • more red blood cells

  • higher oxygen carrying capacity

  • lower resting heart rate

anaerobic training effects

  • your endurance increases
  • hypertrophy of muscles, heart, etc

  • your lactic threshold is increased

  • heart walls grow thicker

  • glucose = energy + lactic acid
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training [4]

three types of training

  • training for strength (heavy weights, few reps) // weight lifters

  • training for power (medium weights, medium reps, done quickly) //

  • training for endurance (low weight, many reps) // marathon runners


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balanced diet: a diet that matches your energy needs, giving the right amount of nutrients. eating the right foods in the right amounts.

components of a healthy diet

  • protein: to build and repair tissues and gain muscle
  • carbohydrates: provides fast burning energy
  • fats: stored energy, provides omega 3 and 6
  • fibre: to aid in digestion
  • vitamins and minerals: important to maintain good health, good for the immune system
  • water: most important solvent
  • dairy ((unimportant))
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eatwell plate


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drugs [1]

why do sports performers choose to take drugs?

  • to increase performance

  • to increase red blood cell count (more oxygen around body)

  • increases time before fatigue

  • to win, get fame and money, sponsorship, world records

  • to be known as a winner hahahha

  • to feel goooood

  • allows muscles to work longer (higher muscular endurance)

  • lose weight

  • pressure (from coach/fans/family/teammates/own expectation)

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drugs [2]

types of drugs

  • anabolic steroids: synthetic drug based on the natural structure of testosterone in the male body. produced naturally by the body but performers increase the amount by taking artificially produced versions of it.
  • peptide hormones: a small protein found in the body, increases muscle growth and increases red blood count. this increases strength and power.
  • diuretics: increases urination and fluid loss which helps other drugs to pass through their system which can hide the use of other drugs
  • stimulants: makes performers more alert and awake
  • beta blockers: blocks the affects of adrenaline, slows heart rate
  • narcotic analgesics: relieves pain temporarily
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joints [1]

fixed joint - skull/cranium

  • fixed

  • immovable

  • fibrous

  • no movement

  • fibre that holds it together

  • important for strength, protects our brain

slightly moveable joint - vertebrae

  • slightly moveable

  • cartilaginous

  • little movements

  • held together by ligaments

  • cartilage becomes a shock absorber

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joints [2]

freely moveable joint

  • freely moveable

  • synovial

components of a freely moveable joint

  • joint capsule: holds bones together and protects the joint

  • synovial membrane: likes the capsule and produces synovial fluid

  • joint cavity: filled with synovial fluid to allow movement easily

  • cartilage: prevents grinding

  • ligaments: holds bones together

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bones [1]

types of bones

  • long bones: upper and lower arms and legs, collar bone, ribs, metacarpals/tarpals, phalanges
  • short bones: carpals/tarpals
  • flat bones: scapula, pelvis, cranium
  • irregular bones: the vertebrae


  • long bones: they act as levers for large range of movement
  • short bones: they provide movement where it is needed in lots of directions but also give strength
  • flat bones: they protect deicate organs
  • irregular bones: they protect, for example, the spinal cord and they provide support.
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muscles [1]

voluntary: striped/skeletal

  • bodily muscles

  • only moves when you tell them to move

  • 40% of the human body

  • connects to bone

involuntary: smooth muscle

  • internal organs

  • works on its own (without thinking about it)

cardiac: heart muscle

  • a type of involuntary muscle
  • striped in appearance

  • doesn’t stop working

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muscles [2]

ligaments and tendons

  • ligaments: bone to bone
  • tendons: muscle to bone

  • helps movement

  • allows for flexibility

fast twitch muscle fibres

  • white
  • fast, more power
  • quicker fatigue
  • suited to activities requiring power/speed
  • lower endurance, more speed, more power
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muscles [3]

slow twitch muscle fibers

  • red
  • slow/less power
  • slower fatigue
  • suited to activities which require endurance
  • higher endurance, less speed, less power
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short term effects

fatigue: when lactic acid builds up in the muscles and causes them to tire quickly (anaerobic respiration)

depleted glucose stores: reduced glucose stores which means less places for energy to be stored. when this happens, the body will use protein and fats for energy instead.

long term effects

hypertrophy: when muscles increase in size (cardiac muscles/voluntary muscles - fast (force) and slow (stamina) twitch)

reversibility/atrophy: muscles return to previous state


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the circulatory system

components of blood

red blood cells: carry oxygen

white blood cells: antibodies//fights virus

plasma: carry nutrients, hormones and waste

platelets: clot blood//create scabs by preventing red blood cells from passing through

components of the circulatory system

  • heart: pushes blood around the body

  • blood vessels: carries blood around the body

  • blood: acts as a transport system

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aorta: main artery

carries deoxygenated blood to the heart

1 cell thick

they need to withstand high pressure

low pressure

link arteries and veins

tough, elastic, muscular walls

thin walls and elastic tissue

narrow; allows slow exchange

connects to the veins via capillaries

contain valves to control direction of blood flow (upwards). this prevents backflow

gaseous exchange takes place

mainly carries oxygenated blood away from the heart

vena cava: main vein

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