Pavane and Galliard - Holborne

A2 Instrumental Set Works 2011

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Joe
  • Created on: 22-06-11 18:27

Introduction

- Consort music

- Consort of Viols

- Pavan and Galliard commonly dance formed (either singly or paired)

  • 16th and early 17th century

-  Early Elizabethan examples were in simple homophonic

- Towards end of the 16th century was more contrapuntal

- Pavane often first dance in group and followed by a faster triple time dance

- Pavane usually more melancholic Galliard more cheerful

1 of 16

Forces and Handling of instruments: I

- The 2 movements intended for a consort of 5 instruments

  • viols
  • violins
  • wind instruments e.g. recorders

- The movements lend best to a consort of viols

- Pavane and Galliard would be played by:

  • 2 treble viols
  • 1 tenor viol
  • 2 bass viols

- Viols are bowed with frets

- Played on the lap or between the legs

- Flat back

2 of 16

Forces and Handling of instruments: II

- Usually a flat back

- Usually 6 strings

- Tuning:

  • Treble: d - g - c' - e' - a' - d''
  • Tenor: G - c - f - a - d' - g'
  • Bass: D - G - c - e - a - d'

- Bow curves outwards from the hair and the bow is held differently to a violin

3 of 16

Texture: I

- 5 part polyphonic

- Imitation between parts but not like in a fugue or fugato

- Little crossing of parts

  • The 5 instruments stay to their own tier within the texture

 - Occasional exceptions e.g. bars 35-36 and 41-42 of the Pavan

  • The Tenor viol goes above both the treble viols
4 of 16

Texture: II

- Imitation can be heard in

Pavane

First strain/section

  • Bar 1 beat 2: 1st bass viol imitates 1st treble viol
  • Bar 4, beat 2: 2nd treble viol imitates 1st treble viol (bar 3, beat 2)
  • Bar 5, beat 2: 1st bass viol imitates 1st treble viol (bar 3, beat 2)

Second strain

  • Bar 18, beat 1: 2nd treble viol imitates 1st treble viol (bar 17)
  • Entry of tenor viol bar 17 = 5 note figure

- Used frequently from:

  • bar 24 beat 2 (1st treble viol)
  • bar 25 beat 1 (2nd treble viol)
  • bar 26 beat 1 (2nd bass viol)
5 of 16

Texture: III

Pavane

Third strain

  • 5 note strain used frequently
  • Return of suspension figure from 1st section from bar 47 beat 2

Galliard

First strain

  • 5 note figure bar 1 (1st treble viol)
  • Followed by ascending leap of 4th = main point
  • Entries in other parts at bar 1, beat 2, 3 and bar 2 beat 1
  • This also occurs in inversion in bar 1, 2nd half of the 1st beat
6 of 16

Texture: IV

Galliard

Second strain

- More chordal and less imitation

- Parts have more melodic interest

Third strain

- Main point starts with ascending leap of a 4th and then a descending scale

- Bar 17 - tenor imitates 1st treble at a distance of one beat

  • 1st bass viol has descending scale & then leap of a 4th & descent bar 18
7 of 16

Structure and Tonality: I

Pavane

1st strain:

16 bars. D major & brief modulations to:

  • A major (bar 10)
  • G major (bar 11 beat 2 - Bar 13 beat 1)
  • A major again (bar 13 beat 2 - bar 14 beat 1)
  • Back to D (bar 14 beat 2)

2nd strain = 17 bars

  • G major (bars 17-20, beat 1)
  • D major (bars 20, beat 2 - 23, beat 1)
  • A minor (bars 23, beat 2 - 24, beat 2)
  • A major (bar 25)
  • E minor (bars 27 - 28)
  • D major (bars 28 - 31)
  • A major (bars 31 - 33)
8 of 16

Structure and Tonality: II

Pavane

3rd strain = 26

  • D major (bars 34 - 46)
  • G major (bars 46 - 47)
  • A major (bars 47 - 51)
  • D major (bars 51 - 53)
  • A major (bar 53)
  • D major (bars 54 - 59)

- Each strain has a perfect cadence

 

9 of 16

Structure and Tonality: III

Galliard

1st strain - 8 bars

- 2 phrases

- 1st phrase finishes wiht an imperfect cadence

- 2nd phrase with perfect cadence

- Tonality = more modal

  • Dorian with sharpened 7th

- Final chord has tierce de picardie

 

10 of 16

Structure and Tonality: IV

Galliard

2nd strain - 8 bars

- 1st phrase finishes with a perfect cadence

- 2nd phrase finishes with Phrygian candence in D minor

- More diatonic

- Tonal centre is D major

 

11 of 16

Structure and Tonality: V

Galliard

2nd strain - 8 bars

  • A minor (bar 9)
  • D minor (bar 10)
  • A minor (bar 11)
  • Tierce de picardie (bar 12)

3rd strain - 8 bars

  • 1st ends with an imperfect cadence in F major
  • 2nd ends with perfect cadence in D minor
  • Rhythmic augmentation (bars 21 - 24)
  • Briefly moves to C major (bars 21-22)
  • Returns to D minor (bar 23)
12 of 16

Harmony

- Functional

- Accented and unaccented passing notes

  • Accented bar 1 of the Pavan (C# in 1st treble viol)
  • Unaccented bar 1 of the Galliard (D in the 1st treble viol)

- Suspensions

  • Pavane bar 3 (7-6 suspension)

-Tied notes = unexpected harmonic effects without dissonances

  • e.g. F# in tenor viol at bar 3, beat 1 where expected chord of A, with an E is delayed until the 2nd crotchet beat

- False relation = Pavane bar 11

13 of 16

Melody: I

- Mainly conjunct in all parts; particularly the 1st treble viol

- Intervals are never wider than a perfect 5th where melodic leaps occur (except for occasional octave)

  • 2 successive leaps of a 5th (Pavane bar 31) = unusual

- 2nd bass viol is like a Baroque bass line

  • Use of pedal points
  • Leaps of 4ths and 5ths
  • Less true in Galliard

- Narrow melodic range

  • 1st treble viol of a 9th in Pavane
  • only a 7th in Galliard

- No obvious melodic links between the 2 movements

14 of 16

Rhythm & metre

- Pavane = duple time

- Galliard = triple time

- In the Pavane, top 4 parts move smoothly

  • mainly crotchets, minims and dotted minims
  • occasional pair of quavers or a semibreve

- Only in tenor and 1st bass there are examples of crotchet-quaver

- Rarely repeated rhythmic patterns

- Galliard has extensive use of dotted crotchets-quaver rhythms

- Homorhythmic in bar 13 of Galliard

15 of 16

Rhythm and metre II

- Galliard goes to 6/4 time in bar 3

 

- Hemiola in bars 6-7 of Galliard.

-Hemiolas also at the end of each of the other 2 strains i.e. bars 14-15, 22-23

 

- Galliard has close rhythmic imitation e.g. bars 1-2 and 5-6

16 of 16

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Music resources:

See all Music resources »See all resources »