- Teeth. Canines rip/tear, incisors bite and molars chew.
- Salivary amylase: hydrolyses starch to maltose.
- Buffers: neutralise acid.
- Mucoproteins: lubricate
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- Protects the larynx during swallowing
- CLoses over the trachea to prevent choking
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- Circular muscles squeeze food down to the cardiac sphincter using peristalsis.
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- Highly elasticated muscular organ
- Wall:highly folded and dotted with gastric pits.
- Food churned into CHYME
- Mucus comes from goblet cells
- HCl comes from oxyntic cells
- Pepsinogen comes from chief cells. It hydrolyses polypeptides into smaller polypeptides.
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- First part of small intestine.
- Pyloric sphincter controls exit of the stomach.
- Almost all digestion occurs here.
- No villi
- Where pancreatic juices are used.
- Exopeptidases: hydrolyse peptide bonds at end of polypeptides.
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- Large gland situated below the stomach.
- Produces pancreatic juice.
- pancreatic amylase: digests starch into maltose
- pancreatic endopeptidases: digest proteins into short peptides
- Pancreatic lipase: digest triglycerides to fatty acids and glycerol
- Pancreatic nucleases: hydrolyse DNA and RNA to nucleotides
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- Secretes bile, which aids with digestion
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- Stores bile and BILE SALTS
- Helps lipid digestion by emulsifying them
- Neutralises stomach acid
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- 2m long
- Large folding of mucosa, then villi, then microvilli
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- 4m long
- Final site of digestion and absorption
- Numerous glands in the mucosa and submucosa secrete enzymes, mucus and NaHCO3
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- Not needed any more
- Originally to break down the cellulose found in grass etc
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- Water is absorbed from semi solid faeces.
- Mucosa has villi, but no microvilli.
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- Faeces contain cellulose, cholesterol, bile, mucus, cells, bacteria and water
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Rectum and ****
- Rectum is the final section of the intestine where the faeces are stored.
- Anus is where egestion occurs. This is controlled by the anal sphincter
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