- Teeth. Canines rip/tear, incisors bite and molars chew.
- Salivary amylase: hydrolyses starch to maltose.
- Buffers: neutralise acid.
- Mucoproteins: lubricate
1 of 14
- Protects the larynx during swallowing
- CLoses over the trachea to prevent choking
2 of 14
- Circular muscles squeeze food down to the cardiac sphincter using peristalsis.
3 of 14
- Highly elasticated muscular organ
- Wall:highly folded and dotted with gastric pits.
- Food churned into CHYME
- Mucus comes from goblet cells
- HCl comes from oxyntic cells
- Pepsinogen comes from chief cells. It hydrolyses polypeptides into smaller polypeptides.
4 of 14
- First part of small intestine.
- Pyloric sphincter controls exit of the stomach.
- Almost all digestion occurs here.
- No villi
- Where pancreatic juices are used.
- Exopeptidases: hydrolyse peptide bonds at end of polypeptides.
5 of 14
- Large gland situated below the stomach.
- Produces pancreatic juice.
- pancreatic amylase: digests starch into maltose
- pancreatic endopeptidases: digest proteins into short peptides
- Pancreatic lipase: digest triglycerides to fatty acids and glycerol
- Pancreatic nucleases: hydrolyse DNA and RNA to nucleotides
6 of 14
- Secretes bile, which aids with digestion
7 of 14
- Stores bile and BILE SALTS
- Helps lipid digestion by emulsifying them
- Neutralises stomach acid
8 of 14
- 2m long
- Large folding of mucosa, then villi, then microvilli
9 of 14
- 4m long
- Final site of digestion and absorption
- Numerous glands in the mucosa and submucosa secrete enzymes, mucus and NaHCO3
10 of 14
- Not needed any more
- Originally to break down the cellulose found in grass etc
11 of 14
- Water is absorbed from semi solid faeces.
- Mucosa has villi, but no microvilli.
12 of 14
- Faeces contain cellulose, cholesterol, bile, mucus, cells, bacteria and water
13 of 14
Rectum and anus
- Rectum is the final section of the intestine where the faeces are stored.
- Anus is where egestion occurs. This is controlled by the anal sphincter
14 of 14