Parts of a cell

Parts of the cell and what their function is.

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  • Created by: Hanna
  • Created on: 12-05-08 16:22

Cell surface (plasma) membrane:

Covers the outside of the cell and regulates substances that come in and out of it. Double layered sheet of lipid molecules interspersed with proteins. Separated the cell from the environment and gives physical protection.

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Controls all cellular activity using coded instructions located in the DNA. These specific instructions allow the cell to make specific proteins. RNA produced in the nucleus and leaves via the nuclear pores. Nucleus stores and replicates DNA.

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Site of aerobic respiration in a cell. Consist of an outer membrane enclosing a semi-fluid matrix.Throughout the matrix is an internal membrane, folded into cristae.

The cristae and matrix contain enzymesthat enable the organism to carry out respiration.

Key organelle in the release of energy, making ATP available to the cell.

Needed for many energy requiring processes, such as active transport and the movement of cilia.

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Each organelle is suspended in a semi-liquid medium, the cytoplasm. Many ions are dissolved in it.

Site of many chemical reactions.

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Numerous ribosomes in the cell.

Site of protein synthesis, site where mRNA meets tRNA so that amino acids are bonded together.

Located along the endoplasmic reticulum.

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Endoplasmic reticulum:

Found as ROUGH ER (with ribosomes) and SMOOTH ER(without ribosomes).

Series of foldedinternal membranes, substances are transported in the spaces between theER. Smooth ER aids the synthesis and transport oflipids.

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Golgi body:

Series of flattened sacs, which look similar to pitta bread. They are separated from the cytoplasm by a membrane.

It is a packaging system where important chemicals become membrane wrapped, forming vesicles. These vesicles then become detached from the Golgi so that individual chemicals are isolated from each other in the cytoplasm.

Aids the production and secretion of many proteins, carbohydrates and glycoproteins.

Vesicle membranes merge with the plasma membrane to allow secretion to take place.

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Specialised vesicles.

Contain digestive enzymes

These enzymes have the ability to break down proteins and lipids, if the enzymes were free to react in the cytoplasm then cell destruction would result.

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Two sort cylinders which contain microtubules, their function is to aid cell division. During division they move to opposite poles as the spindle develops.

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Cell wall:

Around the plasma cells of plants is a cell wall.

Secreted by the cell

Consists of cellulose microfibrils embedded in a layer of calcium pectate an hemicelluloses.

Provide a rigid support for the cell but allow many substances to move in and out of it.

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Enable the plant to photosynthesise,making glucose.

Each consists of an outer covering of two membranes.

Inside are more membranes stacked to form grana.

The membranes enclosechlorophyll.

Inside the chloroplast is a matrix known as the stroma which is also involved in photosynthesis.

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Sap vacuole:

Large space ina plant cell, containing chemicals such as glucose and mineral ions.

Solution is sap.

Surrounded by a membrane known as the tonoplast.

Important in a plant cell that it contains enough water to maintain internal hydrostatic pressure. Maximum hydrostatic pressure means that the cell is turgid.

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