Parliament is the Law-making body (Legislature) and consists of the House of Lords-Unelected and the Monarch(Who plays no part in Parliament decisions). The house of commons is made up of members of parliament - MP'S who are elected by the local people who represent their individual constituencies. The house of Lords currently consists of Hereditary peers(limited to 92), life peers appointed by the monarch on the advice of the government, law lords.
Acts of Parliament
UK legislation comprises Acts if Parliament, which are also known as statutes. These are the results of a process involving the House of Commons, the house Of Lords and the Monarch. Statutes are referred to as Primary Legislation. Most Legislation is drawn up(Drafted) by the government.
Types of Bill
All acts of parliament begin life as bills, The great majority are Public Bills which are subdivided into Government bills and private members' bills.
Government Bills are introduced and piloted through the Parliamentary process by a government minister.
Green and White papers
Before a bill is drawn up, the government department involved in the proposed changes to the law may issue a consultative document known as Green Paper or a White paper.
Private Member Bills
Private Member Bills are introduced by backbench mps whose names have been selected by Ballot . They also use the Ten Minute Rule Which allows MPS to make a 10-minute speech in favor of a new piece of legislation. A succesful example is Bail Act 1993.
This is the stage where only the title of the bill is read out to the house. No discussion takes place, but there is a vote where the house decides whether it wants the bill to be given a second reading. Most Private members' bills do not get past this stage.
The second reading involves the government minister of the bill to introduce their particular bill. The minister outlines the bill's overall purpose and highlights the parts which are considered more important.At the end of the debate the house decides whether the bill should continue onto the next stage. If the house votes against the bill at second reading, the bill can progress no longer. Government bills are almost certain to pass their second reading, because a defeat would threaten the government's future.
This is the stage where a detailed examination of each clause of the bill is said.
The committee reports back to the house on any amendments that have been made. The report stage is the opportunity given o the whole house to discuss and vote on the amendments suggested by the committee.
The bill is presented again to the house and a final vote is taken. It is unlikely that a bill will fail at this stage . Then in comes the Royal Assent where it has to be passed through the Monarch and it has to be accepted.