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  • Created by: angie
  • Created on: 13-01-10 15:06

House of Commons

The House of Commons

  • The dominant chamber of parliament as it is elected.
  • 646 Mp's sit
  • Starts most of the legislation.
  • Has the ability to over-rule the decision in the House of Lords.
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House of Lords

House of Lords

  • This is the inferior chamber as members are appointed.
  • They can start legislation but generally amend it.
  • It can be veoted (over ruled) by the house of commons. They can delay for 12 months however.
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The monarchy

The crown (Queen)

  • The Queen has a ceremonial role only.
  • She formally enacts a bill by signing it.
  • It becomes law at midnight on the day of the signing.
  • Also known as 'Royal Assent'
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Types of bills - Introduced by

Government bills

  • These are outlined in the Queen's speech at opening of parliament.
  • Bills bought to governement by governement lawyers, also known as the 'treasury counsel'.

Private member's bill

  • Introduced by individual MPs
  • They must win a ballot to win chance to present the bill.
  • Only 6 or 7 can be presented each year realistically.
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The bills can be either...

Public bills

  • These laws affect everyone.
  • For example, The Access to Justice Act 1999 concerns everyone that would like to go to court.

Private bills

  • These bills affect certain institutions.
  • For example, University College London Act 1996 merged medical institutions.
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Influences on Parliament

The Law Commission

  • It is a full time advisory, set up in 1965.
  • Consists of a Chairman who is a high court judge and four other commissioners.
  • It works by considering areas of law that need reform.
  • It was successful within its first 10 years.
  • It came up with 20 law reforms in 2 years.
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Influences on Parliament

Pressure Groups

  • These are groups that concern themselves with one issue.
  • They do not try to get elected.

Insider groups: They have good contacts in government. They rely on lobbying MPs eg: NSPCC

Outsider groups: They tend to rely on the media, public campaigns to make their views known eg: Greenpeace.

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Influences on Parliament

Royal Commissions

  • They are set up to investigate and report one specific area of the law.
  • They are dissolved after they have completed their task.
  • Members are selected from judges, lawyers, and others with knowledge of the subject.
  • Some royal commissions led to important changes in the law, for example The Police procedure 1981
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Parliamentary Sovereignty

Parliamentary Sovereignty

  • This means supreme law maker.
  • It is sovereign because it is democratically elected by the whole of the UK in the name of the Queen.
  • It means that it has more political legitimacy than any other body in the UK.
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Limitations of Parliamentary Sovereignty - Europea

European Union

  • The European Communities Act 1972 states that all european treaties become UK law.
  • The case of Factortame established that EU law was superior to UK law.
  • This means that acts of Parliament can be over-ruled by Europe.
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Limitations of Parliamentary Sovereignty-The human

The Human Rights Act 1998

  • In 1998, the government formally incorporated the Europan convention of human rights into UK law.
  • It outlined rights that all UK citizens could have eg: a right to life.
  • This means unless the act is repealed, it would be impossible for parliament to pass a law reintroducing the death penalty.
  • It states a right to a fair trial, this is why judges must have no vested interest in a case.
  • The act effectively binds later parliaments.
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Limitations of Parliamentary Sovereignty - Politic

Political Pressure

  • Politicians are always conscious of the next election.
  • Therefore they are unlikely to do something which would make them unpopular.
  • For example, a reluctancy to bring about the european constitution.
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Please tell me if these are any good!!!


These are good - clearly presented with good information and evaluation too.


its quite good well done princess ;)


Very helpful thank you :) What is Factortame? 

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