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Weight and Size

Paper is weighed in GSM.

Board is measured in MICRONS

The thickness of board is measured in PLY

 

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Types of Board

Types of Board:

Folding Boxboard:

Description: Bleached and unbleached pulp.

Uses: Most food packaging

Properties: excellent printing surface

Cost: Relitively inexpensive.

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Types of board 2

Corrugated Board:

Description: Fluted paper sandwiched together.

Uses: Protective packaging for fragile goods.

Properties: Recyclable and good strength.

Cost: Relatively inexpensive.

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SOLID WHITE BOARD

Solid White Board:

Description: Made from bleached wood pulp.

Properties: Very strong and rigid, excellent printing surface.

Uses: Cosmetic packaging and frozen food.

Cost: Expensive

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FOIL-LINED BOARD

Foil-Lined Board:

Description: Board with laminated foil coating.

Properties: Very strong visual impact. Excellent barrier against moisture.

Uses:Cosmetic cartons.

Cost:Expensive.

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THERMOPLASTICS

THERMOPLASTICS:

Polymers that once heated can be formed into a variety of shapes using different forming techniques. When the polymer cools down the shape remains permanent. However you can heat it again and mould it to a different shape.

Thermoplastic products are ideal for recycling.

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POLYMER ADVANTAGES

Polymer Advantages: In electrical products

- Less expensive to produce in mass.

-Can make complicated shapes.

-Non conductive. (electricity)

-Heat resistant properties.

 

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POLYMERS CONT.

POLYMERS ADVANTAGES: PACKAGING

-lightweight.

-Water resistant, strong.

-easy to print on.

-low-cost.

-recyclable.

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DISADVANTAGES OF POLYMERS

Disadvantages of Polymers:

-Not sustainable (made from oil)

-Causes alot of pollution because it takes alot of energy.

-Disposal problems (degrade slowly)

-Manufacturing process' cause pollution problems.

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MODERN AND SMART MATERIALS

Modern Materials: Developed through invention of new or improved technology by humans.

Smart Materials: Respond to differences in temperature,light,sound and pressure.They are smart because they respond to the conditions.

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POLYMORPH

Polymorph:

-At 60 degrees it becomes soft and mouldable. -When soft it has properties of plastacine.         -Used to test ergonomics                                    -Once cooled it hardens like plastic.                                                        Polymorph is a thermoplastic.

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THERMOCHROMIC LIQUID CRYSTALS AND FILM.

Thermochromic Liquid Crystals and Film:

Uses: Forehead thermometer,battery test panels and special printing.

Forehead thermometer: The temperature turns the thermochromic ink translucent.

Thermoreactive inks.

Photochromic inks react to sunlight.

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LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS

LCD's:

Organic, carbon based compounds that have both liquid and crystal characteristics.                             

small amounts of current needed to power them.

Full Colour LCD: used in laptops each pixel divided into red green and blue. Voltage passes through filters to create 256 colours.

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BENEFITS OF LCD DISPLAYS

Benefits:

- are thinner so the tv,computer etc is slimmer, this means less material is used.

-higher resolution, better picture quality than CRT TV's.

-use far less energy, saving energy and costs.

-Weigh less than CRT TV's so they are more portable

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ELECTRONIC PAPER DISPLAY (E-PAPER)

EPD

-Used to mimic appearance of ink on paper.

-Easier to read at an angle than flatscreen monitors

-Reflects light.

-Durable and highly flexible.

-Pixels are stable require no power to maintain an image.

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TRANSDERMAL DRUG PATCHES

Medicated adhesive patch that delivers a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream.

Patch contains a drug reservoir sandwiched betweeen a non permeable layer and a permeable adhesive layer that sticks to the skin.

Controlled release of the drug.

No needles to dispose of. it is clean technology.

Can be used to help people quit smoking,relieve pain and slimming aids.

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SCALE OF PRODUCTION

ONE OFF PRODUCTION:

- tailor made and customised designs.

-Creates a single product at a time to customers specification.

-High cost because: Unique features, more expensive or exclusive materials and it is time consuming (hand crafted production and finishing.)

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BATCH PRODUCTION

Batch production involves the manufacture of identical products in specified quantities which can vary from tens to thousands.

-Flexible tooling,machinery and workforce enables production to be adapted quickly to meet customer demand.

Batch production reults in a lower unit cost than one off production.

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MASS PRODUCTION

Mass production doesn't require as many people to work. Mainly machines, low labour cost.

No felxibility as it costs alot to change the machine.

Manufactures identical products.

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MODELLING AND PROTOTYPING

BLOCK MODELLING

Helps to determine shape, dimensions and surface details by making 3D models, to get a feel of the product.

use Medium Density Fibreboard because it is cut and shaped easily,excellent surface finish and can be spray painted.

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MODELLING AND PROTOTYPING

SKETCH MODELLING

Uses CAD programmes to created 3D realistic representations.

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MODELLING AND PROTOTYPING

SCALE MODELS:

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MODELLING AND PROTOTYPING

SCALE MODELS

A model created but scaled down so you can see it all.

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MODELLING AND PROTOTYPING

PROTOTYPE MODELS:

Working, full size models.

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FORMING TECHNIQUES

BLOW MOULDING

A hollow tube is placed between the mould, hot air is blown into the tube and expands to the shape of the mould.

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FORMING TECHNIQUES

INJECTION MOULDING

An expensive mould is injected with a liquid polymer. When the polymer cools and solidifies the formed product is ejected. 

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FORMING TECHNIQUES

LINE BENDING

Heat a thermoplastic sheet over a strip heater on a line until it becomes soft. It is then bent over a former. Hold the bend in place until it cools.

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ADHESIVES

Used to join a variety of materials (usually permenant)

TYPES:

-Expoxy resin

-Polystyrene cement

-tensol

-PVA

 

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EPOXY RESIN

Uses: Most materials including expanded polystyrene.

Advantages: High performance, hardens quickly, versatile, excellent heat and chemical resistance.

Disadvantages: Reaches full strength after a few days, expensive, requires manual mixing of resin and hardener which is messy.

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POLYSTYRENE CEMENT

Uses: Polystyrene and vacuum forming. Can't be used for expanded polystyrene as it dissolves.

Advantages: strong bond. able to use a brush to apply.

Disadvantages: Relatively expensive and solvent based.

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TENSOL CEMENT

Uses: acrylic

Advantages: Produces high strength bonds to acrylic sheet. Clear adhesive- if acrylic is glued correctly you will not see the join.

Disadvantages: Needs to be clamped together for 24 hours to give a permanent joint. Solvent based so contains harmful organic compounds.

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PVA (POLYVINYL ACETATE)

Uses: woods and porous materials such as styrofoam.

Advantages: gives a strong joint and dries clear and relatively inexpensive.

Disadvantages: Surfaces need to be securely clamped together for a long period of time for it to harden. Most brands not waterproof.

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