Paper 1 - Peace Treaties

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  • Created by: naomih
  • Created on: 20-04-13 07:17

The Paris-Peace Conference 1919-1920

- took place in the palace of Versailles (Paris)

- lasted for 12 months

- 32 nations was supposed to be represented, excluding defeated nations

- 5 treaties was drawn up, main was TOV dealing with Germany

- important decisions bout Germany was taken by the 'big three' (Clemenceau, Lyold George, Wilson)

- Treaty was signed on 28 June 1919

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Treaty of Versailles: Aims of the Leaders

George Clemenceau (France): realist

- suffered damage, over 2/3 men in army killed/injured.

- Ever since 1870, felt threatened by Germany, opportunity to cripple+weaken Germany 

Woodrow Wilson (USA): idealist

- believe that the treaty of Germany shouldnt be too harsh, preven revenge

- main aim strengthen democracy in defeated nation

- nations should cooperate to achieve world peace, Jan 1918, published 14 points, LON

- Believed in self-determinationm nations to rule themselves eg Austria-Hungary's empire

David Lloyd George (Britain): middle ground

 - wanted Germany to lose navy, felt threatened, justly punished

- keen to begin trading again, meant jobs for Britain


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Treaty of Versailles: the terms

War Guilt: Article 231

Reparations: exact figure agreed in 1921, 6.6 billion pounds

Territories: Overseas empire taken away and given to LON as mandates 

: land given to Poland, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France

: Forbid union with former ally Austria

Armed Forces: army limited to 100,000 men, soldiers had to be volenteers

      : not allowed armoured vehicles, submarines, aricraft

      : navy only 6 battleships

      : Rhineland became demiliterized zone

League of Nations: Temporarily banned from joining

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Treaty of Versailles: Germany reaction

War guilt and reparations: economy was already bad, people feared the payments 

Disarmament and German territories: army was a symbol of German pride

Impact on Germany: - Germany fell behind in Reparations in 1922, so 1923 France       invaded the Ruhr and took in form of raw materials+goods

 - Germans went on strike, over 100 killed --> no goods to trade

 - Printed extra money, cause hyperinflation (prices shot up)

Big three: 

Clemenceau: not harsh enough, in 1920 voted out of French general elction

Lloyd George: recieved hero's welcome, later described TOV as "great pity" and believed another was would happen because of it

Wilson: dissapointed with it, American Congress refused to approve the Treaty

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Other Treaties (1)

Negotiated by officers and diplomats working with foreign ministers of allied powers

Treaty of St Germain 1919 (Austria): Austria+Germany forbidden to reunite 

        : Land given away to Poland and Italy, seperated Hungary

      : army restricted to 30,000

Treaty of Neuilly 1919 (Bulgaria): lost land to Greece, Romania, Yugoslavia

: armed force 20,000

: pay 100 million pounds reparations

Treaty of Trianon 1920 (Hungary): Lost 2/3 of land

  : lost population (3 million Hungarians)

  : was due to pay repaprations, but economy too weak 

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Other Treaties (2)

Treaty of Sevres 1920 (Turkey): Empire was broken up and given to B+F or independant

Treaty of Lausanne 1923 (Smyrna): Greece would give back Smyrna to Turkey

    : Foreign troops would leave Turkey

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Other Treaties: impact on eastern and central Euro

The Recreation of Czechoslovakia, Poland and Yugoslavia

Czechoslovakia:

- carved out of old Austrian Empire+Germany land, wide range of nationalities

- Allies wantred it be economically+politically strong, land included industrial areas

Poland:

- act as a potential watchdog on Germany, form barrier against Russia

-  no natural frontiers, vulnerable to attack

- 30% population not polish (Russians, Germans, Jews)

- Given German land for access to sea (Polish Corridor)

Yugoslavia:

- desire of South Slav people independant from Austria-Hungary 

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