Paper 1 - Collapse of Peace

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  • Created by: naomih
  • Created on: 20-04-13 08:38

Hitler's Aims

Gain Land: Expand for population

Anschluss: Expand land, invade Anschluss to create Greater Germany

Abollish TOV:  Rearmament - Rhineland+Saar

    : 1935, openly stage massive military rally, rearming

    : 1935, LON held promised plebiscite for Saar people to vote, HItler suceeded with 90% of population voting to return German rule, boosted morale confidence

Defeat Communism: Helping 'right wing rebels' in Spanish Civil War, defeat communist

Reestablsh National Pride

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Hitler's Actions

1933: Left LON, began rearming Germany

1934: tried to take over Austria but prevented by Mussolini

1935: Held massive rearmament rally

1936: Reintroduced conscription in Germany

: Sent troops to Rhineland

: Anti-communist alliance with Japan

1937: Tried out new weapons in Spanish Civil War

: Anti-Communist alliance with Italy (The Axis Alliance)

1938: Took over Austria, Sudentenland of Czechoslovakia

1939: Invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia and Poland


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Appeasement 1935

what is it: Next 3 years, B+F followed a policy of giving Hitler what he wanted

Why: - HItler standing up for communism

- Attitude of Britain's Empire (not certain would support a war against Germany)

- Not repeat the horrors of WW1, not ready for another

- own economic problems (large debts and high unemployments)

- HItler right, TOV unfair

- USA will not support if B+F stand up to Hitler

Criticisms:  - allowed Germany grow too strong (becoming more powerful than B/F)

- Scared USSR

- Encouraged Hitler to become aggressive (taking bigger risks)

- Too much trust in Hitler's promises 

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Remilitarisation of the Rhineland

March 1936:

- France just signed traty wit USSR to protect each other against Germany, Hitler used agreement to claim threatened

- Britain felt Germany had the right to put troops in Rhineland, not considered threat

- Attention of LON was on Abyssinian crisis, League condemned HItlers actions only

- French held elction, none wanted to take risk without British support

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Anchluss with Austria 1938

- HItler's homeland, Austria. Mainly German people

- Hitler confident bringing them together into a 'greater Germany' as they are economically weak, mentioned in Mein Kampf

- Austrian Chancellor Schuschnigg called a plebiscite 

- Hitler afraid to lose,sent troops in March 1938, under watchful eye 99.75% voted for Anschluss

- Completed without any military confrontation with France+Britain

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The Sudentenland 1938

May 1938: Hitler made it clear he intended to fight Czechs for Sudentenland

15 September: Chamberlain(Britain) flew to meet HItler, agreeing to taking parts of Sudentenland and only after a plebiscite showed that Sudeten Germans agreed

19 September: F+B put ther plans to Czechs however 3 days after, Hitler wanted all now

     : to justify, he said Czechs gov mistreating Germans, intends to 'rescue'

29 September: Leaders of Britain, Germany, France and Italy decided to give Sudentenland to HItler, did not consult Czechs, known as the Munich Agreement

1 October:  German troops marched ino Sudentenland while Hungary and Poland helped themselves to Czech territory 

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End of Appeasement

Czechoslovakia 1939: 

15 March: German troops took over the rest of Czech

       : No resistance from Czechs, nor from B+F

       : B+F told Hitler if he was to invade Poland, Appeasement would end, however Hitler did not believe they would risk war

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Nazi-Soviet Pact

24th August 1939 - agreed not to attack each other and privately to split Poland between

Why Stalin agreed: 

Time to rearm+prepare for war

Hope for gains (wanted to take over Baltic states)

Unhappy with Britain for giving Poland as a warning for war, not convinced B+F were strong for war against Germany

Germany wants Poland, distracts HItler from invading USSR


1 September 1939: German army invaded Poland from the west

2 September: B+F declared war on germany

17 September: Soviet forces invaded Poland from the east

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