- Is a form of Indirect Realism and a sense-data theory of perception
- The mind doesn't directly perceive objects. Objects cause ideas in the mind. Thus, what the mind perceives directly are 'ideas' or representations of objects.
Primary = are in the object, easy to measure (eg. size, shape, weight etc)
Secondary = object has power to produce sensation, subjective (eg. colour, smell etc)
An idea is a mental object
The image is perceived by subject
Idea is caused by the the object and represents the object by way of resemblance.
Physical Object = mind independant (eg. has a back as well)
Sense-data = minde dependant (eg. immaterial current content)
Percieve objects 'indirectly' - what we perceive 'directly' is a representation (mental image) that exists in our mind but which represents the physical object.
Physical object is perceived via this representation.
Idealism (used against R.R?)
- Nothing is mind independant
- Berkeley: To be is to be perceived (esse est percipi)
Objection to representation realism: primary qualities do not 'resemble' any more than secondary qualities.
We are acquainted only with our own experiences and we cannot experience anything other than them.
For example, can't tell if experience is actually the desk as cannot compare desk-experience with actual-desk.
Berkeley: An idea can resemble nothing but another idea.
No qualities of 'materials' are mind independent. We perceive only 'ideas'
Material objects are just bundles of ideas.
If not idealists, we will fall into confusion or scepticism.
Ayer: Linguistic Phenomenalism
Phenomena - what we perceive
Noumena - external world beyond epistemic gap.
We can only make knowedge claims about the phenomena world.
Definition: The view that things are as we perceive them. Our perceptions are veridical.
Verdical - matching an external reality.
Sceptical arguments lead you to question perception are veridical.
Sceptical - the evidence offered is not sufficient to agree to the proposition, leads to being a Global sceptic - never enough evidence - leads to Solipsism (all that exists is personal perception).
Philosopher: Rene Descartes
Cogito ergo sum - "I think therefore I am"
I exist (according to Descartes)
This is undoubtable therefore must be certain
Eg. I have an idea of God, everyone has an idea of God.
Definition: always act for own happiness
2nd definition: is an account of how we behave is in our own interest.
Definition: the view that greed is good.
acting responsibly - doesn't have to hurt others
cannot be universalised
Adam Smith: Individual ambition serves the common good.
James Rachels: I know what I want best
Should mind our own business and allow others to mind theirs.
Altruism denies individual value therefore is destructive to society.
Against: Is opposed by most religion.
Kurt Baier: No moral basis for the resolution of conflicts of interest.
Hobbe's Social Contract
If we don't make an agreement, our life would be nasty, brutish and short.
Life is a state of nature (no social rules) then life is not worth it. There would be a war of "all against all."
Leviathan -> leader -> unquestioned
Human Nature: we are beings which feel good about cooperation.
We are both cooperative and competitive.
There was no pre-social era - no state of nature
In order to make a deal, you have to already be co-operative ("You can't make a deal with a tiger.")
Morality pre-exists contracts
Definition: knowledge may come from other sources than the senses.
A Priori - independent of experience
A Posteriori - gained from experience
A Priori: Maths
Cause & Effect
Innate knowledge need not be a priori - maybe experiencing things from the womb.
Descartes: All have an idea of God
We have often been deceived by our senses.
Plato: world of senses is illusory - does not believe can have any knowledge of it.
Unum namen unum nominatum - For every name there is a thing named.
The synthetic a priori
definition: not known by experience, not true by definition, necessary
Necessary: Has to be true/false in all possible worlds.
Kant: Certain basic concepts, under which sensory input falls, provide experience (categories)
Without categories - we have no meaningful experience.
Kant: Our scheme is necessay - cannot be otherwise and everyone has them.
But: people do have other schemes:
Piraha tribe (no concept of maths/number)
Definition: things known through sensation.
"My sense-data is incorrigible." - nobody can correct it.
Ideas mean different things to different people.
Rorty: Ideas = tools
Berkeley: Ideas = all that exists is ideas
Locke: Ideas = sense-data (and sense experience)
Plato: Ideass = form
idea - a concept (eg. the idea of colour)
idea - a complete thought - a proposition (eg. he had an idea that it would be fun to take the day)
Perhaps innate ideas are ones that are known as soon as the person gains the use or reason.
Definition: knowledge gained from experience.
Locke: the mind at birth is a blank slate (tabula rasa)
no such thing as innate ideas (part of mind from birth) that the mind would have to know or be conscious to it.
No universal assent: There is no truth that every person, including children and 'idiot's assents to.
Hume: Blind people don't have an idea of colour because they've never experience it.
Objection: We do have ideas about things we have never experienced.
But: we 'smoosh' at least two things together.
Smooshing = compounding transposing, augmenting, diminishing.
Impression idea photocopy
office party photocopy of copy. . .
impressions get fainter and fainter. . .