- Created by: Nicky.18
- Created on: 16-01-20 17:38
Emotional Characteristics of Depression
- Lowered Mood = Patients often describe themselves as worthless and empty
- Anger = Sufferers are often irritable, and their anger can be directed at themselves or at others
- Lowered Self-Esteem = Some sufferers of depression describe a sense of self-loathing ie. hating themselves
Behavioural Characteristics of Depression
Anxiety Levels = Sufferers of depression have reduced levels of energy making them lethargic, they may struggle to get out of bed. This has a knock on effect for work, education and social life.
Disruption to Sleep and Eating Behaviour = Sufferers may experience reduces sleep (insomnia) or increased need for sleep (hypersomnia) similarly appetite may increase or decrease leading to weight change.
Agression or Self-harm = Sufferers can become verbally aggressive eg. ending relationships or becoming physically aggressive eg. cutting or suicide.
Cognitive Characteristics of Depression
Poor Concentration = The sufferers may find themselves unable to stick with a task as they usually would. or they may find simple decision making difficult.
Dwelling on the Negative = Depressed people are inclined to pay more attention to negative aspects of a situation and ignore the positives (glass half empty attitude)
Absolutist Thinking = Situations are good or bad, they have black and white thinking. When a situation is unfortunate they see disaster.
Cognitive Approach to Explaining Depression AO1
- Beck proposed cognitions cause a cognitive vulnerability to depression.
- If we have a negative self-schema we think negatively about ourself.
- A persons dysfunctional view of themselves results in the negative thoughts about the world, the future and the self.
- Depressed individuals attend to the negative and ignore the positive, this occurs due to the negative triad.
- Ellis proposed that an activating event (A) triggers irrational beliefs (B) which produces a consequence (C).
- For example the breakdown of a relationship (A) triggers the belife thst you are unlovable (B) resulting in depression (C).
Cognitive Approach to Explaining Depression AO3
- Supporting Evidence = (P) Gazzioli and Terry 2000 - (E) Pregnant women cognitive vulnerability - (E) If it's high before theyre likely to develop post-natal depression - (L) Therefore, cognitions cause depression
- Critique = (P) Only pregnant women - (E) Can't be generalised to men - (E) Only investigates post0natal depression - (L) Other depressions may have other causes
- Opposing Research = (P) Some characteristics of depression are unaccounted for - (E) Extreme anger - (E) Hallucinations -(L) Incomplete explanation
- Different Explanation = (P) Cognitive is on a psychological level - (E) Cant explain the effect of SSRI's - (E) SSRI's are on a fundamental level - (L) Cognitive and biological approach are a better explanation
- Application = (P) Application to therapy - (E) CBT challenges the negative triad - (E) REBT disputed the irrational beliefs - (L) success reinforces the cognitive basis to depression
Cognitive Approach to Treating Depression AO1
- Behavioural activation allows patients to identify pleasurable activitues that they no longer take part in so engagement in such activities should result in a lifting mood.
- Graded homework assignement is to record when theyre happy to investigate the reality of their negative beliefs
- This can be used in future sessions to prove patient's wrong
- Thought capturing allows identification of negative thoughts and replace them with more relaistic ones
- REBT Ellis disputes the empirical argument asking whther there is evidence to support the irrational beliefs
- The intended effect (E) of dispute (D) is to change the irrational belief (B), so break the link between negative life events (A) and depression (C).
Cognitive Approach to Treating Depression AO3
Time = (P) Hard to access - (E) Waiting lists for trained therapists - (E) Series of sessions - (L) Symptoms may worsen leading to a suicide risk
Effectiveness = (P) March 2007 - (E) Comapred CBT and drugs - (E) CBT is 81% effective same as drugs - (L) Drugs and CBT together are 86% effective
Acceptability = (P) disruptive to the patients life -(E) active role to complete the homework - (E) bad, patients may lack motivation - (L) Drugs are better as they are passive
Relapse Rates = (P) Lower than drugs - (E) Thought capturing methods - (E) eg. engage in pleasurable activities - (L) effective long term
Side Effects = (P) No physical side effects - (E) no weight gain, or loss of sex drive as SSRI's do - (E) Beneficial psychologically improved self-esteem - (L) More likely to continue the therapy