subsidise with healing
rise in BP, HR, pallor, sweating,restless, anxiety, grimace
associated with injury/ disease
Acute pain occurs because of activation of nociceptors in the body tissues and
organs activated by:
Mechanical injury (trauma, surgery), Thermal (heat/cold)
Chemical (release of molecules from damaged tissues (e.g. inflammation) which increase pain transmission
dull, diffuse, constant, aching,doesn't go away
associated with restlesness, being withdrawn, depression
Pain assessment should be done using OPQRSTU- onset, provocation, quality, radiation, site, time and understanding.
Chest pain: use OLD CART- onset, localisation,duration, characteristics, aggrevating factors, relieving factors and treatment.
Tools are used to measure and establish patterns, and also understand iv the anlgesia is working. Use visual analogue scales- numeric, intensity rating or facial scales, visual description and vital signs (for patients who can't explain themselves for some reason).