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  • Damon has explored children's concept of sharing and distributing resources.
  • Stage 1: Pre-schoolers' decisions are based on their feelings and perspectives; decisions are egocentric. At the end of the stage, external considerations influenced reasoning
  • Stage 2: Primary school children base their decisions on notions of equality
  • Stage 3: Equality gives way to considerations of merit and notions of reciprocity. The distribution of resources is based on other's achievements.
  • Stage 4: At age 10 to 11, the child exhibits evidence of fairness. 
  • An alternative method of measuring moral reasoning and development is the socio-moral reflection method of Gibbs et al. 
  • This is a dilemma-free measure which evaluates the importance of those issues, values and institutions that arise in Kohlberg's model and which are seen in every society and culture - contracts, truth, affiliation, life, property, law and legal justice. 
  • For example, people's view of truth and contract might be prompted by the statement: 'Think about when you've made a promise to a friend'; affiliation would be explored by statements such as: 'Let's say a friend of yours needed help and may die and you're the only person who can save him or her.'
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