Pack 1

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  • Created by: emma
  • Created on: 29-04-12 12:17

systems

System = interdependant parts, defined boundary, definiton on probelm, conservation of e,m, m

Gulf stream = rockies force statiary wind in westerlies with N flow over N.A, and southerly flow, warming, over East Atlantic.

Vegetation cover - IPCC don;t have this in their models. Effects gas exchange, energy budget and atmospheric drag.

Agric cover = colder

Residence time = Tr = system volume V /Flow rate Q

Oceans = 3200 yrs     Rivers = 2-6 months    Atmos = 8 days

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The climate system

Temp = determines way heat flows. Manifestation of heat body holds. K/C

Heat = amount of energy needed to giv eobjects its temp.

Heat flow = rate of energy transfer Js-1/ Wm-2

Cooling = drop in temp   The colling = flux out

Planet warmed by incident rays, varies cos of obit 1.7%

Solar constant = 1372 Wm-2     But shadow = 1372/4    = 343.

If need to know whole earth, 4 x pie  x  r2

Global albedo = 0.3

Net power from sun = incident power x (1 - albedo)

Cools via earthshine - infrared. terrestrial = infrared, long wave length      Sun = =visible, shorter length.

Rate of radioation energy = constant x (t + 273) 4       = constantT4

constant = 5.67 x 10-8  Wm-2K-4

Forth power law. If temp up by 1%, radiation up by 4%. 2 = 16

Planet temps 

Venus     -46       462

Eath        -18       15

Mars       -57        -60

Encedladus      -213        -205

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