System = interdependant parts, defined boundary, definiton on probelm, conservation of e,m, m
Gulf stream = rockies force statiary wind in westerlies with N flow over N.A, and southerly flow, warming, over East Atlantic.
Vegetation cover - IPCC don;t have this in their models. Effects gas exchange, energy budget and atmospheric drag.
Agric cover = colder
Residence time = Tr = system volume V /Flow rate Q
Oceans = 3200 yrs Rivers = 2-6 months Atmos = 8 days
The climate system
Temp = determines way heat flows. Manifestation of heat body holds. K/C
Heat = amount of energy needed to giv eobjects its temp.
Heat flow = rate of energy transfer Js-1/ Wm-2
Cooling = drop in temp The colling = flux out
Planet warmed by incident rays, varies cos of obit 1.7%
Solar constant = 1372 Wm-2 But shadow = 1372/4 = 343.
If need to know whole earth, 4 x pie x r2
Global albedo = 0.3
Net power from sun = incident power x (1 - albedo)
Cools via earthshine - infrared. terrestrial = infrared, long wave length Sun = =visible, shorter length.
Rate of radioation energy = constant x (t + 273) 4 = constantT4
constant = 5.67 x 10-8 Wm-2K-4
Forth power law. If temp up by 1%, radiation up by 4%. 2 = 16
Venus -46 462
Eath -18 15
Mars -57 -60
Encedladus -213 -205