outline how women are advantaged and disavantaged

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workplace : disadvantaged

- women form 45% of the workforce but 40% part time compared to 11% of men

- women occupational groups in 5'c (catering, caring, cashiering, cleaning, clerical)

  • low paid, low status (women and work commission 2006)
  • horizontal segregation

- vertical segregation

-2009, women constituted 12% of the director of top 100 FTSE (cranfield school of Management)

- 'leaky pipeline' (gradual loss of women in higher levels)

-glass ceiling

-average pay gap between men and women is 16.4%

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Health: Disadvantaged

- higher morbidity rate than men (stress related)

- women use health services more

- 1 in 4 women diagonsed with depression (National Mental Health Statistics)

- women are twice as likely to experience anxiety than men (The Office for National Statisics Psychiatric Morbility Report)

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Health: Advantaged

- Women have longer life expectancy than men, 82 years compared to 78 (Department of Health 2010)

- Men are more likely to be alcoholics and drug users

- Young males engaged in risky behaviour (Egdeworld) increasing the rick of accident or death ( Lyng 1990)

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Education: Advantaged

- girls of all ethnic background do better than boys

- girls from Chinese and Indian background do better than any other group

- the number of boys excluded, especiallt black boys in 4 times than girls

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Education: Disadvantaged

- girls more likely to self exclude by traunting (Osler and Vincent 2003)

- subjects choices are gendered; for example Physics is male dominated

  • 76% of Physics entries for A levels were boys
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Crime : Disadvantaged

- The court treats females more harshly than men (Heidensohn)

- When women are jailed, it is for less 'serious of crimes' (Pat Carlen)

- punish girls for promiscuous sex than boys

-increase of 25% from 2003- 2006 (Youth Justice Board)

- a higher proportion of females than male offenders are convicted of propert offences

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Crime : Advantaged

- 87% of all recorded crimes are males

- Chivalry factor, protects them; police and courts

- 4 out of 5 convicted offenders in England and Wales are males

- men are 15 times more likely to be convicted of homicide

- women are more likely to be cautional

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Chivalry Thesis

argues that most criminal justice agents (police, magistrates, judges) are male and they are socialised to act in a ' chivalrous' way towards women. The criminal justice system is more lenient with women and the crimes are less likely to end up in offical statistics

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