AO1 - Genetic Factors in Aggression
- biological approach from observing kids w/ agg. parents generally engage in more agg. beh. that those w/ non-agg/ parents
- genetic abnormalites cause agg as genes dictate brain growth/development/function/NA levels - and these are inherited which is why parents and children have similar agg levels
- e.g.s of these abnormalities: 47XYY Karyotype -men have extra Y chromosome - Court-Brown suggested lower IQ/v. tall/acne due to defect --> agg beh - suggested ppl w/ 47XYY should be hospitalised due to incr likelihood of agg beh
- other e.g. = MAOA (enzyme) gene that regulates SN levels in brain - defect causing low levels of MAOA linked to agg.
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AO2 - Genetic Factors in Aggression
- ++Hutchings + Medneck: - studies 14,000 Danish adoptions - large no. of boys w/ criminal convictions had biological parents w/ criminal convictions - evidence for genetic factors as even when removed from biological parents = still agg. = genetic - nature not nurture - BUT - beta bias/large sample/cant assume - only correlat. = no causality
- ++Caspi et al - study on 500 male kids - isolated MAOA gene variant for high and low levels of MAOA - kids w/ low levels = more likely to show agg beh as adults if maltreated -shows that low levels of MAOA can be linked to agg and may can lead to it BUT - only a correlation/unethical - mistreated/shows interaction betw. genes + env = diathesis stress model - genes alone cant explain it
- ++Young et al - identified mutation "fierce" in mice that caused agg beh towards other mice - shows that across species there are genetic causes of agg. + therefore gives further support to theory BUT this cannot be extrapolated onto humans as we have v different physiology/unethical
- -- Court-Brown: 330 hosp. patients. XYY men = more agg. BUT Modern studies dont find same results - CB's findings due to experimenter effects
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AO3 - Genetic Factors in Aggression
- Deterministic - doesnt allow for cognitive processes/free will in chooosing whether or not to be aggressive - weakness as it doesnt explain situtations where people choose not to be aggressive e.g. a boy sees his aggressive father beating his mother and grows up choosing to be v non-aggressive even though he has inherited aggressive genes from his father
- Unethical - adoption studies are socially sensitive - as are studies to do with maltreatment of children - cannot obtain IC from animals- they cannot object to this treatment.
- Reductionist - ignores any social/behavioural explanatiobs for aggression and the effect of social pressures (e.g. peer pressure in violent gangs) on how people to respond to things. - Caspi suggested there are many genes that contribute to each beh. and that environmental factors influence people's beh alongside genes - therefore genetics alone cannot explain agg beh.
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