Out of Africa Evidence

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  • Created by: Grace
  • Created on: 10-12-13 10:54


Australopithecus - 2-4 Million Years Ago


  • One of the Earliest Bi-Peidals in africa
  • 1/3 of our brain size
  • Tree dweling creatures 
  • Had the ability to walk on 2 legs but could still walk on all 4's
  • Developed a verticle spine which ennabled them to walk upright
  • Bodies were still covered in fur
  • Used simplistic tools (oldowan tools - Pebbles)
  • Large teeth for crunching roots
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"Nariokotome Boy"

Homo Erectus - 1.5 million years ago

  • Long legs - For running
  • Long narrow twisting waist - For running
  • Gluteus maximus - For running
  • Fur replaced by sweat glands and fine hair - For running
  • Bi-peidalism - Frees up hands for tool making, Further vision, 
  • Thumbs turn strong and hands become more dextrous - Aposable thumbs
  • Cranial capacity increased
  • Developed shorter guts because of the high protein diet
  • eyes faced forwards to see on coming predators
  • could out run predators using the developments above because we could run for longer because of sweat glands cooling us down. 
  • rapid brain development which caused for much more protien 
  • Smaller teeth because no longer need to chew roots
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Homo Heidelbergensis

Homo Heidelbergensis - 700,000 - 200,000 YA

  • Some of the earliest known sophisticated tool makers (mode 2)
  • projecting face
  • flat forehead
  • massive lower jaw (no chin)
  • thick skull walls
  • large browridges
  • bigger brain (more cognitive thinking)
  • less angular back (even more veticle)
  • gained a "foothold" in europe

Evidence of homo-heidelbergensis was found at boxgrove - Links to use of achulean and ovate hand axes (mode 2) 

Also contains evidence of butchery and hunting with the punctured shoulder blade of a wild horse

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Neanderthals - 200,000 - 28,000 YA

  • Adapted to winter climates
  • Short
  • Stocky
  • Thick and short limbs
  • More heavily built than homo sapiens
  • Boies conserved energy
  • Used mode 3 tools - Flake technology - Le vellois (turtle shell)
  • They also used thrusting spears rather than throwing spears (suited to hunting in woodlands) 
  • very specialised to specific climate
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