Break up of the Habsburg Empire and Turkey Negotia
In 1918, the once powerful Habsburg empire had been broken down into smaller individual states. These were the new states of Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. Other countries also wanted the self determination Wilson had called for.
Negotiating with Turkey
Turkey was ruled by a Sultan in 1918 but many Turks feared he Allies would abolish his position. The allies kept the Sultan and he signed the Treaty of Sevres in 1920, agreeing the terms decided by the Allies. The Turkish Parliament refused to agree to the treaty as it gave away too much Turkish land. Then the Sultan was overthrown in the revolution by the new leader Kemal Ataturk, and in 1923 negotiated a new treaty with less harsh terms called the treaty of Lausanne.
N The Problem of Russia
Russia was a particular problem as it had joined the war in 1914 on the Allies side, but following the Bolshevik revolution, there had been a civil war in Russia, where Tsar supporters were trying to bring him back so Russia left the war in 1917, after signing a treaty with Germany called Brest Litovsk, giving Russia peace in return for Land.
However, the Allies were not going to allow Germany to keep the land it had got. On the other hand they did not like the Bolsheviks either so they were not keen to return any land to them either.
Following Wilson's idea of self determination, Estonia, Finland, Latvia and Lithuania were made into independent states at the treaty of Versailles. In addition, some of Russia's territory was handed over to Poland. Only Ukraine was handed back to Russia.
Treaty of St Germain- Austria-1919
Territorial Losses Bohemia and Moravia became new state of Czechoslovakia. Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia became new state of Yugoslavia.
Army restricted to 30,000 men and was forbidden to join with Germany.
Treaty of Neuilly-Bulgaria- 1919
Lost land to Greece, Romania and Yugoslavia and its access to the Mediterranean.
Army restricted to 20,000 men
£100 million pounds reparations
Treaty of Trianon, 1920-Hungary
Lost land, Transylvania was given to Romania. Slovakia was given to Czechoslovakia. Slovenia and Croatia were given to Yugoslavia.
Industry suffered from loss of population due to loss of land. It was due to pay reparations, but its economy was so weak it never did.
Treaty of Sevres, 1920-Turkey
Smyrna given to greece
Syria became French Mandate
Lost control of straits running into the Black Sea.
Formally agree that countries of their former empire such as Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco were now independent under British or French protection.
Turks were outraged by the terms. Nationalists led by Mustafa Kemal challenged the terms when they drove Greeks out of Smyrna.
The result was the treaty of Lausanne (1923) which returned Smyrna to Turkey.